Oregon Biodiversity Information Center

Oregon Biodiversity Information Center (ORBIC)

ORBIC’s primary mission is to track the distribution and status of all of Oregon’s flora and fauna as is possible. For species considered to be at-risk in Oregon, location and population data is managed for all of the observations and occurrences in the state.

ORBIC is Oregon's local member of the NatureServe Network of natural heritage programs, utilizing their rigorous core standards and methodologies to assess status, risk, and condition of the state's biodiversity. Standardized methods allow sharing of conservation  information across jurisdictional boundaries.

ORBIC works to answer three questions: What is it? Where is it? How is it doing?

If you are interested in learning more about our work, please contact Eleanor Gaines.

Core Work

ORBIC Special Projects

ORBIC Special Projects

Western Snowy Plover

The western snowy plover (Charadrius nivosus nivosus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1973. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center staff have surveyed and monitored snowy plovers along the Oregon coast since the 1990s. Working with partners in the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Oregon Department of Parks and Recreation, The Nature Conservancy, and many others, ORBIC staff have collected decades of data on plover distribution, nesting locations and success, and predator controls and exclosure methods. Through these and other conservation efforts, populations of the western snowy plover have steadily increased. See ORBIC's snowy plover project webpage for more information.

 

Species Accounts

INR-OSU and INR-PSU/ORBIC have been working with the U.S. Forest Service Southwest Region (R5) to write species accounts for species of potential conservation concern on their lands as required for updating national forest plans. See INR's species accounts project page for more information.

 

BLM Aquatic Assessment Inventory, and Monitoring

Lotic Habitat Assessment. Collecting stream condition data for habitat assessment for the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) Aquatic Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring (AIM) Program in Oregon, Washington, California, Idaho, and Nevada.

Wetland and Riparian Monitoring. Collecting wetland condition data for the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) Aquatic Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring (AIM) Program in Southeastern Oregon and Northeastern California.

Invasive Species

Oregon iMapInvasives

ORBIC has partnered with the Oregon Marine Board, Metro, the West Multnomah and Clackamas County Soil and Water Conservation Districts, the Oregon Invasive Species Council, and others to centralize invasive species information for Oregon. These locations are shared through the online tool, iMapInvasives.

iMapInvasives is an online, GIS-based invasive species reporting and querying tool developed by NatureServe, the New York Natural Heritage Program, and many other collaborators. It is focused on the need for land managers, regional planners, and others who are working to prevent, control or manage invasive species to have locational information for where invasives are found. iMap also places an emphasis on developing functionality to aid in early detection, rapid response efforts.

The iMapInvasives public map is accessible without a login. To view additional data, enter sightings online, and otherwise take full advantage of the iMapInvasives site, you will need to create a free account.

To learn more about iMapInvasives, please visit the Oregon iMapInvasives Resources site.

You can see the species that are tracked on iMapInvasives at our Jurisdiction Species List page. If you are an iNaturalist user, you can also contribute observations to our iMapinvasives iNaturalist Project.

Links to Other Invasive Species Resources

  • ODA Noxious Weed Control Program. The Oregon Department of Agricultures's Noxious Weed Control Program protects Oregon´s natural resources from the invasion and proliferation of exotic noxious weeds. 
  • ODA WeedMapper. WeedMapper is a Web-based spatially referenced database of noxious weeds that anyone may query. The database includes locations of noxious weeds throughout Oregon as collected by responsible federal, state, and local agencies. Maintained by the Oregon Department of Agriculture. 
  • Oregon Aquatic Nuisance Species Management Plan (PDF). The goal of the plan is to minimize the harmful ecological, economic, and social impact of Aquatic Nuisance Species (ANS) through prevention and management of introduction, population growth, and dispersal of ANS into, within, and from Oregon.
  • Oregon Invasive Species Council. OISC was created by the Oregon legislature in 2002. Its purpose is to conduct a coordinated and comprehensive effort to keep invasive species out of Oregon and to eliminate, reduce, or mitigate the impacts of invasive species already established in Oregon. The OISC Web site has links to many resources about invasive species in Oregon.
  • Oregon Invasive Species Hotline - Oregonians can report and upload photos of suspected invasives and interact with invasive species experts.
  • The Silent Invasion - This is the companion site the 2008 Oregon Public Broadcasting series on invasive species in Oregon. It provides extensive links and information on invasive species in Oregon including a video archive of stories about invasives in Oregon.
  • US Army Corps of Engineers Invasive Species Management. USACE employs the latest economically efficient technologies and research; and biological, mechanical and chemical control methods. USACE also stays on the leading edge of invasive species management by developing new pest control techniques through its Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Program and Aquatic Plant Control Research Program.
  • USDA Forest Services' Invasive Plants Inventory. The Forest Service Natural Resource Information System (NRIS) supports a corporate computer application for Invasive Plants Inventory. The application is an Oracle database, utilizing Oracle data entry forms and ESRI’s Spatial Data Engine (SDE) for storing and managing spatial data in Oracle. ESRI’s ArcMap is used to display the Invasive Plants Feature Class containing the invasive plants inventory polygons.
  • USGS Non-Indigenous Aquatic Species. Tracks aquatic vertebrate and invertebrate species throughout the US and provides fact sheets on hundreds of species.

If you are interested in learning more about our work, please contact Jacob Rose.

Mapping Natural Vegetation

Mapping Natural Vegetation

If you are interested in learning more about our work, please contact Rachel Brunner

 

Existing Vegetation

Existing Vegetation

The Institute for Natural Resources has long been involved in mapping and modeling Oregon's vegetation and habitats. The following resources map existing vegetation at the time of their production (check the descriptions for the year).

 

Forest Landscape Mapping 

INR collaborates with a variety of partners to develop maps of vegetation and other important landscape characteristics. Our products range from mid-scale maps that extend across multiple states, to more project-tailored data with smaller geographic footprints. These data have been instrumental to land managers and have enabled critical ecological research.

Mid-scale existing vegetation mapping provides information about current vegetation composition and structure at the resolution and scale needed to inform a range of conservation, management, and planning activities. INR’s vegetation mapping team uses a variant of nearest neighbor imputation to create mid-scale maps that provide rich data depth and wall-to-wall coverage for all land ownerships within target regions. These maps support collaborative landscape management across administrative boundaries by providing information that can be used to inform planning, from estimating timber supplies, carbon stocks, and potential fuels for wildlands fires, to understanding the extent and distribution of habitat for plant and animal species, to modeling future landscape conditions under alternative climate and disturbance scenarios.

Key strengths of INR’s mid-scale existing vegetation maps include the following:

  • Rich data depth. Our imputation maps are linked to many attributes that provide detailed information about vegetation characteristics including species composition, plant functional groups, community type, forest structure, and more.
  • Flexibility. INR works with mapping partners to create vegetation classifications and attributes tailored to specific management and planning needs. Because of the rich depth of data linked to each map unit, new summary variables can be created or reformulated after the maps are made.
  • Suitability for landscape-level assessment. Because INR’s imputation maps are assessed for bias at multiple scales and maintain covariance between modeled attributes, they are well-suited to landscape-level assessments and summaries.
  • Updatable. Maps can be more rapidly updated using modeled information based on recent disturbances as an alternative to recomputing the whole map.

Over the past two decades, INR has collaborated with the USDA Forest Service Southwestern Region (R3), Pacific Northwest Region (R6), and Intermountain Region (R4) to develop existing vegetation maps of Oregon, Washington, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and parts of Idaho and Wyoming. Since their creation, our imputation maps have significantly improved project implementation and planning by supporting management and shared stewardship across all land ownerships. See the list of projects on our Forest Landscapes: Landscape Mapping page.

 

Integrated Landscape Assessment Project

The ILAP project produced a multitude of habitat and forest structure maps across Oregon. Washington, Arizona, and New Mexico. You can find these vegetation data, maps, models, and analyses products on the Western Landscapes topic page of the Oregon Explorer

 

LEMMA Forest and Vegetation Mapping Products

You can find additional maps and data related to forest structure, carbon monitoring, and fuels at the LEMMA project website, a collaboration between the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, and the Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University (OSU), based at the Forestry Sciences Lab on the OSU campus.

 

NW ReGAP Ecological Systems Map of Oregon

In the 2000s INR's Oregon Biodiversity Information Center (ORBIC) received funding from the Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board (OWEB) to integrate all available 1:24,000 vegetation maps and coverages. Previously, the only statewide vegetation or land coverages available for Oregon had been the two OR-GAP coverages described below. ORBIC and OR-GAP has worked hard to link all existing vegetation coverages to the National Vegetation Classification System. The newest version of the map, a grid of ecological systems throughout Oregon (downloadable zip folder), was created in 2010.

 

Two statewide vegetation and land cover GIS maps were created as part of OR-GAP in Oregon. The first was produced in 1992 by Jimmy Kagan and Steve Caicco. This map was done using available data, with polygons hand drawn and digitized on 1:250,000 satellite images. This existing vegetation cover and the associated vegetation manual (downloadable zip folder) are available from the Oregon Geospatial Office.

The second OR-GAP coverage is the 1998 Statewide Existing Vegetation and Landcover map (downloadable zip folder). For this, OR-GAP contracted Chris Kiilsgaard of the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. This map was completed using 30 meter TM imagery and was used in the analysis for the final OR-GAP report. The vegetation types have also been crosswalked to wildlife habitats.

 

National Park Service Vegetation Maps

National Park Service Vegetation Maps 

In conjunction with NatureServe, INR made remote sensing-based vegetation maps for the major national parks in the Pacific Northwest.

Detecting climate change impacts on the distribution of vegetation requires an accurate map of baseline conditions made using a repeatable methodology. The National Park Service Inventory & Monitoring Program has embarked on a major vegetation mapping project for Mount Rainier, Olympic, North Cascades, and Lewis and Clark National Parks.

These vegetation maps used the revised National Vegetation Classification System, and were targeted to the Alliance level, roughly equivalent to dominant canopy species with some major types further differentiated by temperature or moisture modifiers. Multitemporal Landsat TM imagery, supplemented by color-infrared aerial photography, LiDAR elevation and vegetation height data where available, and extensive field training data collection, formed the basis of the mapping, which was performed using Random Forests data mining techniques.

The new maps provide a baseline against which to measure vegetation change and will also provide useful for studies of the impacts of climate change on a variety of vegetation processes, including carbon dynamics and disturbance.

The Lewis and Clark National Historical Park map and report were completed in 2012.

Final products for the other parks will be available from the National Park Service website at NCCN Vegetation Classification and Mapping Reports and at INR Publications.

Historical Vegetation Mapping

Historical Vegetation Mapping

Land managers and researchers often want to know what a landscape looked like years ago, to compare how the ecology has changed, assess the rate of change, and make decisions about how to manage the area for the future.

INR and its partners have created datasets of historical vegetation in Oregon at both fine and coarse scales, using several different data sources. INR and its partners have also created maps of historical vegetation and stream networks for portions of the Pacific Northwest, based on interpretation of public land survey records of the federal government's General Land Office (GLO), and, where available, U.S. Coast Survey topographic maps ("T-Sheets"). The maps depict vegetation at coarse scale (forest, woodland, savanna, prairie) and finer scale (species assemblages). In some areas where historical stream networks were altered by later agricultural and urban development, we mapped stream alignments as delineated at the time of survey.

Oregon Statewide Historical Vegetation

Oregon Statewide Historical Vegetation

As part of the Oregon Gap Analysis Program, ORBIC worked with the Defenders of Wildlife and Jim Strittholt to develop the first statewide map depicting historical vegetation. Scale varies throughout the coverage, depending on the source data, but the overall scale is 1:100,000. The map was first compiled in 1999 and is updated as needed. It integrates several sources of historical spatial data:

  1. The Andrews and Cowlin timber maps for Oregon and Washington (1936-1937, digitized by USFS 1994-1996, scale = 1:253,440), 
  2. GLO-based  coverage where available (compiled 1994-present by ORBIC and partners, scale = 1:24,000), 
  3. NRCS SSURGO data (scale = 1:24,000), and 
  4. Current land cover mapping from the USDI Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

The Andrews and Cowlin layer forms the background into which more detailed coverages were incorporated. It was mapped to forest type, with a secondary classification for young forests. Because the layer lacked detail for non-forest vegetation, ORBIC supplemented the data with more detailed information contained in the sources cited above. Because SSURGO data present potential vegetation based on soil types, they were used to replace post-settlement land cover types such as agriculture or urban occurring on well-defined riparian and floodplain soils. Where SSURGO data were not available, these types were replaced with potential pre-settlement vegetation based on the composition of adjacent polygons, and the presence of rivers and streams for riparian areas and bottomlands. Recent burns and regenerating young forests were reverted to forest. 

Download the Oregon Statewide Composite Historical Vegetation map. It is also posted on the Available Historical Maps page.

GLO-based Historical Mapping in the Pacific Northwest

 

GLO-based Historical Mapping in the Pacific Northwest

INR and its partners have created maps of historical vegetation and stream networks for portions of the Pacific Northwest, based on interpretation of public land survey records of the federal government's General Land Office (GLO), and, where available, U.S. Coast Survey topographic maps ("T-Sheets"). The maps depict vegetation at coarse scale (forest, woodland, savanna, prairie) and finer scale (species assemblages). In some areas where historical stream networks were altered by later agricultural and urban development, we mapped stream alignments as delineated at the time of survey.

See the pages below for use and interpretation of GLO data, links to spatial data, history, and other resources. You can also navigate through these pages using the menu at right.

Beyond Land Surveys

Beyond Land Surveys

Established in 1812, the federal General Land Office (GLO) was charged with surveying public lands belonging to the federal government, and then conveying these lands to state or private ownership. Land surveyors, under contract with GLO, were required to follow specific survey instructions. These methods were developed first for Ohio in 1785, and refined over the decades as federal land surveys progressed westward to the Pacific Coast. The surveys created the familiar rectangular grid of townships and ranges, now called the Public Land Survey System (PLSS), that covers 30 states. In 1946, the GLO was merged with the U.S. Department of the Interior's Grazing Service to form the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

 

 

The GLO surveys created a more or less consistent dataset spanning 200 years and covering nearly 1.5 billion acres. Since the 1920s, ecologists, historians, and others have used GLO records as a source of information on landscape condition and settlement as seen at the time of survey:

  • Land surveyors routinely use historical GLO data because it is the foundation of all land ownership records, and all land survey lines are interconnected.
  • Ecologists and Botanists use GLO survey lines as a grid of transects, along which surveyors recorded changes in vegetation, and information about trees and shrubs every half mile. They also had to record information at random points where lines intercepted trees, rivers, streams, lakes, and other natural features. Notes on streams and rivers often included depth, current, alluvium, and condition of the banks. Witness tree data are particularly useful in assessing historical stand density, fire history, and species distributions. They are being used to restore plant community structure, species composition, and ecological processes (see Witness Trees below).
  • Historians use the GLO grid in a similar way to ecologists, because surveyors were required to record where lines intercepted man-made features such as roads, fencelines, farmyards, and towns. Surveyors routinely recorded distances and compass bearings to prominent buildings that were visible along the survey lines. These records have been used to relocate early settlements, support claims to water rights, and validate early census records. GLO users of any stripe also often are drawn to its history because they inevitably wonder who the surveyors were, what they saw, and how they did their work without roads, electronic survey equipment, chainsaws, and even maps.

The landscape described in GLO notes has often erroneously been called "presettlement," implying pristine ecosystems untouched by human hands, but in most places surveyors saw lands shaped by at least 10,000 years of occupation and management by native peoples.

Witness Trees

When trees were available in the landscape, GLO survey instructions called for two witness trees at quarter corners and at river crossings ("meander posts"), and four witness trees at section corners. When survey crews established corners, they marked them with wooden posts, rocks, or pits and mounds of soil. They then recorded compass bearings and distances to selected witness trees, and recorded the species and diameters of the trees. On each tree they cut away a patch of bark, and scribed the wood beneath with the appropriate township and range number.

Species of trees were often selected subjectively for durability, their known resistance to decay. This was done to ensure that the marked "witness" to the established survey corner would last as long as possible. In durable trees, the scribed area would heal over, leaving a scar ("cat face") on the trunk. These scars are often used to relocate survey corners, and the bark can be cut away to reveal the preserved scribe marks beneath (see photos below).

Witness tree selection is one element of uncertainty when reconstructing historical vegetation based on GLO data. Surveyors probably selected trees for a variety of reasons, including the species' durability, its ease of scribing, or simply because it was within easy reach. Therefore, ecologists cannot be certain that the species selected, its diameter, or its distance from the corner reflected characteristics of the stand of trees as a whole at the time of survey. Using witness tree data, species recorded along the section line, and species recorded in the "general description" recorded at the end of each section line, ecologists can make general inferences about stand composition and structure. However, an element of uncertainty remains and is an inherent part of working with historical data.


Relocation of a corner established in 1884. Corner cap is at the base of the pole in the center foreground. Two witness trees are in the background, their scars opened to reveal the scribed marks beneath.
Photo courtesy of Larry Marshik, Marshik & Associates.
 

Scar or "cat face" on a witness tree established in 1884, prior to removal of the bark. Photo courtesy of Larry Marshik, Marshik & Associate

Witness tree with scar cut away, revealing scribe marks made when corner was established in 1884. Photo courtesy of Larry Marshik, Marshik & Associates.

Dominion Land Survey

Canada's Dominion Land Survey System (DLS) is the standard government survey system used from Manitoba west to British Columbia. Begun in 1871, it was based on American GLO/PLSS methodology. The two survey grids adjoin along the international border. Although there are some differences (courtesy Province of Saskatchewan) between the two systems, the DLS will be instantly recognizable to those familiar with GLO surveys. Much of the discussion on these web pages can also be applied to the DLS.

Current GLO Coverage

Historical vegetation maps are available for the gray shaded areas shown below. Red townships are in production. (Last updated December 2017)


 

Downloadable Maps

Available Maps

Go to section:
Oregon
Washington

 

DISCLAIMER FOR GLO VEGETATION MAPS

Maps of historical vegetation are for planning and research purposes only. They are only estimates of the original occurrence, location, and extent of vegetation types and wetlands. They do not necessarily include all landscape features that may have been present historically, and the features may not be mapped in their correct historical locations or configurations. The maps should not be used as a substitute for current wetland determinations or delineations performed by a qualified wetland specialist. As a general rule, small landscape features usually are under-represented and consequently have artificially low acreages. Per current Federal and Oregon Wetland Mapping Standards, the mapping of historical wetlands is "neither designed, nor intended, to support legal, regulatory, or jurisdictional analyses of wetland mapping products, nor does it attempt to differentiate between regulatory and non-regulatory wetlands." Mapping of historical wetlands is also not intended to be a hydrography dataset, and it should not be used to infer hydrologic connectivity, or lack thereof, between wetland polygons. 

 

OREGON

Oregon Statewide Composite Historical Vegetation

Historic Vegetation, Oregon (1938).

Tobalske, C. 2002. Historic Vegetation. Source: Oregon Natural Heritage Program, 1:100,000. Shapefile: 60 MB. 

 

General Land Office (GLO) and U.S. Coast Survey

Click on the thumbnails below for a preview of the maps. Click on the map citations to download the maps. These are ZIPped (compressed) GIS shapefiles. You will need to uncompress the files and use shapefile-viewing software to view and use the data. There are free spatial tools available from ESRI.

 

 

Deschutes GLO Historical Vegetation Map

Deschutes National Forest

Christy, J.A., L. Riibe, E. Blue & G. Davidson. 2016. GLO historical vegetation of Deschutes National Forest, 1865-1932. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2016_11. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Portland State University. (download)

 
Eastern Columbia Gorge, Eastern Slope Mount Hood

Christy, J.A. 2010. GLO historical vegetation of eastern Columbia River Gorge and east slope of Mount Hood, Oregon, 1859-1939. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2010_12. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Portland State University. (download)

Harney Basin

Vegetation

Christy, J.A. 2013. GLO historical vegetation of the Harney Basin, Oregon, 1873-1915. GIS shapefile, Version 2013_03. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Portland State University. (download)

Streams

Christy, J.A. 2013. GLO historical stream alignments in the Harney Basin, Oregon, 1873-1915. GIS shapefile, Version 2013_03. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Portland State University. (download)


Oregon Coast

Hawes, S.M., J.A. Hiebler, E.M. Nielsen, C.W. Alton, J. A. Christy, P. Benner. 2018. Historical vegetation of the Pacific Coast, Oregon, 1855-1910. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2018_01. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Portland State University. (download)


Klamath Basin

Christy, J.A. 2006. GLO historical vegetation of Williamson River delta and southern Klamath Basin, Oregon, 1858-1898. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2006_02. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University. (download)


Rogue Valley, Lower Applegate, Upper Illinois Valley

Hickman, E. & J.A. Christy. 2012. GLO historical vegetation of central Rogue, lower Applegate, and upper Illinois Valleys, Oregon, 1854-1919. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2012_02. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Portland State University. (download)

 

Sycan Marsh (Lake and Klamath Counties)

Christy, J.A., M.P. Dougherty & S.C. Kolar. 2007. GLO historical vegetation of Sycan Marsh, Oregon, 1865-1898. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2007_11. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University. (download)


Umpqua Valley

Vegetation

Christy, J.A & Hawes, S.M. 2009. GLO historical vegetation of the Umpqua Valley, Oregon, 1851-1917. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2009_07. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University. (download)

Streams

Christy, J.A & Hawes, S.M. 2003. GLO Historical stream alignments in the Umpqua Valley, Oregon, 1851-1917. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2003_12. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University. (download)


Willamette Valley and Columbia River Floodplain

Vegetation

Christy, J.A., E.R. Alverson, M.P. Dougherty, S.C. Kolar, C.W. Alton, S.M. Hawes, L. Ashkenas & P. Minear. 2011. GLO historical vegetation of the Willamette Valley, Oregon, 1851-1910. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2011_04. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Portland State University. (download)

Streams

Christy, J.A., E.R. Alverson, M.P. Dougherty, S.C. Kolar, C.W. Alton, S.M. Hawes, L. Ashkenas & P. Minear. 1999. GLO Historical stream alignments in the Willamette Valley, Oregon, 1851-1910. ArcMap shapefile, Version 1999_12. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University. (download)

 

WASHINGTON

General Land Office (GLO) and U.S. Coast Survey

Vegetation

Christy, J.A. 2015. GLO historical vegetation of southwestern Washington, 1853-1910. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2015_02. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Portland State University.

 


 

Streams

Christy, J.A. 2013. GLO historical stream alignments in southwestern Washington, 1855-1910. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2013_06. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Portland State University.

 

 

 

Mapping Methods and Vegetation Classification

Back to GLO Introduction Page

Available Reports

Available Reports

The following are available reports relating to the GLO Historical Mapping Project. Click on the title of the report to download the file. 

 

OREGON

Douglas County

Hickman, O.E. & J.A. Christy. 2014. Historical vegetation of the Tiller Area, Douglas County. Report to Douglas County Commissioners. 82 pp.

Rogue Valley, Lower Applegate, Upper Illinois Valley

Hickman, O.E. & J.A. Christy. 2011. Historical vegetation of central southwest Oregon, based on GLO survey notes. Final report to USDI Bureau of Land Management. Medford District, Oregon. 124 pp.

Willamette Valley and Columbia River Floodplain

Christy, J.A. & E.R. Alverson. 2011. Historical vegetation of the Willamette Valley, Oregon, circa 1850. Northwest Science 85: 93-107.

Methods and Vegetation Classification

Methods and Vegetation Classification

SYNOPSIS OF METHODS USED TO MAP HISTORICAL VEGETATION IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON, BASED ON GENERAL LAND OFFICE SURVEY NOTES.

  • John A. Christy, Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Portland State University and Edward R. Alverson, The Nature Conservancy of Oregon. December 2011. 

 

CLASSIFICATION OF HISTORICAL VEGETATION IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON, AS RECORDED BY GENERAL LAND OFFICE SURVEYORS

  • John A. Christy, Edward R. Alverson, Molly P. Dougherty, Susan C. Kolar, Clifford W. Alton, Susan M. Hawes, Gene Hickman, Jennifer A. Hiebler, Eric M. Nielsen. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Portland State University. November 2016. 

 

Available Historical Vegetation Maps

Available Historical Vegetation Maps

  

DISCLAIMER FOR GLO VEGETATION MAPS

Maps of historical vegetation are for planning and research purposes only. They are only estimates of the original occurrence, location, and extent of vegetation types and wetlands. They do not necessarily include all landscape features that may have been present historically, and the features may not be mapped in their correct historical locations or configurations. The maps should not be used as a substitute for current wetland determinations or delineations performed by a qualified wetland specialist. As a general rule, small landscape features usually are under-represented and consequently have artificially low acreages. Per current Federal and Oregon Wetland Mapping Standards, the mapping of historical wetlands is "neither designed, nor intended, to support legal, regulatory, or jurisdictional analyses of wetland mapping products, nor does it attempt to differentiate between regulatory and non-regulatory wetlands." Mapping of historical wetlands is also not intended to be a hydrography dataset, and it should not be used to infer hydrologic connectivity, or lack thereof, between wetland polygons. 

 

OREGON

Oregon Statewide Composite Historical Vegetation
Historic Vegetation, Oregon (1938).

Tobalske, C. 2002. Historic Vegetation. Source: Oregon Natural Heritage Program, 1:100,000. Shapefile: 60 MB. 

Historic Oregon Land Cover 1851: three layers available on OregonExplorer (to view layer descriptions, expand the Habitats and Vegetation layer drop-down, then the Land Cover drop-down, in the left-hand Layers menu in the map viewer)

Oregon Historical Vegetation Map
General Land Office (GLO) and U.S. Coast Survey

Click on the thumbnails below for a preview of the maps. Click on the map citations to download the maps. These are ZIPped (compressed) GIS shapefiles. You will need to uncompress the files and use shapefile-viewing software to view and use the data. There are free spatial tools available from ESRI.

 

 

Deschutes National Forest

Christy, J.A., L. Riibe, E. Blue & G. Davidson. 2016. GLO historical vegetation of Deschutes National Forest, 1865-1932. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2016_11. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Portland State University.

Deschutes GLO Historical Vegetation Map
Eastern Columbia Gorge, Eastern Slope Mount Hood

Christy, J.A. 2010. GLO historical vegetation of eastern Columbia River Gorge and east slope of Mount Hood, Oregon, 1859-1939. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2010_12. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Portland State University.

Columbia Gorge Historical Vegetation Map

Harney Basin

Vegetation

Christy, J.A. 2013. GLO historical vegetation of the Harney Basin, Oregon, 1873-1915. GIS shapefile, Version 2013_03. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Portland State University.

Streams

Christy, J.A. 2013. GLO historical stream alignments in the Harney Basin, Oregon, 1873-1915. GIS shapefile, Version 2013_03. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Portland State University.

Harney Basin Historical Vegetation Map
Oregon Coast

Hawes, S.M., J.A. Hiebler, E.M. Nielsen, C.W. Alton, J. A. Christy, P. Benner. 2018. Historical vegetation of the Pacific Coast, Oregon, 1855-1910. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2018_01. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Portland State University.

Oregon Coast Historical Vegetation Map
Klamath Basin

Christy, J.A. 2006. GLO historical vegetation of Williamson River delta and southern Klamath Basin, Oregon, 1858-1898. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2006_02. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University.

Klamath Basin Historical Vegetation Map
Rogue Valley, Lower Applegate, Upper Illinois Valley

Hickman, E. & J.A. Christy. 2012. GLO historical vegetation of central Rogue, lower Applegate, and upper Illinois Valleys, Oregon, 1854-1919. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2012_02. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Portland State University.

Rogue River Historical Vegetation Map

 

Sycan Marsh (Lake and Klamath Counties)

Christy, J.A., M.P. Dougherty & S.C. Kolar. 2007. GLO historical vegetation of Sycan Marsh, Oregon, 1865-1898. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2007_11. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University.

Sycan Marsh Historical Vegetation Map
Umpqua Valley

Vegetation

Christy, J.A & Hawes, S.M. 2009. GLO historical vegetation of the Umpqua Valley, Oregon, 1851-1917. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2009_07. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University.

Streams

Christy, J.A & Hawes, S.M. 2003. GLO Historical stream alignments in the Umpqua Valley, Oregon, 1851-1917. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2003_12. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University.

Umpqua Valley Historical Vegetation Map
Willamette Valley and Columbia River Floodplain

Vegetation

Christy, J.A., E.R. Alverson, M.P. Dougherty, S.C. Kolar, C.W. Alton, S.M. Hawes, L. Ashkenas & P. Minear. 2011. GLO historical vegetation of the Willamette Valley, Oregon, 1851-1910. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2011_04. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Portland State University.

Streams

Christy, J.A., E.R. Alverson, M.P. Dougherty, S.C. Kolar, C.W. Alton, S.M. Hawes, L. Ashkenas & P. Minear. 1999. GLO Historical stream alignments in the Willamette Valley, Oregon, 1851-1910. ArcMap shapefile, Version 1999_12. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University.

Willamette Valley Historical Vegetation Map

 

WASHINGTON

General Land Office (GLO) and U.S. Coast Survey

Vegetation

Christy, J.A. 2015. GLO historical vegetation of southwestern Washington, 1853-1910. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2015_02. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Portland State University.

 

Southwest Washington Historical Vegetation Map

 

Streams

Christy, J.A. 2013. GLO historical stream alignments in southwestern Washington, 1855-1910. ArcMap shapefile, Version 2013_06. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Portland State University.

 

 

 

 

Books

Books​

These books provide insights on how GLO surveys were made, why they were made, and who did the original work. Links to online sources or ordering information are provided where they could be found.

 

OREGON AND WASHINGTON

Atwood, K. 2008. Chaining Oregon, Surveying the Public Lands of the Pacific Northwest, 1851-1855. McDonald and Woodward Publishing Co., Blacksburg, Virginia. 264 pp.

Available in local bookstores or direct from McDonald and Woodward Publishing.

White, C.A. 2001. A Casebook of Oregon Donation Land Claims. Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon. LLM Publications, Oregon City, Oregon. 240 pp.

BRITISH COLUMBIA


 

Gordon, K. 2006. Made to Measure: A History of Land Surveying in British Columbia. Sono Nis Press, Winlaw, British Columbia. 373 pp. 
Available in local bookstores or direct from Sono Nis Press

GENERAL

White, C.A. 1996. Initial Points of the Rectangular Survey System. Professional Land Surveyors of Colorado. The Publishing House, Westminster, Colorado. 576 pp.
White, C.A. 1991. A History of the Rectangular Survey System. USDI Bureau of Land Management. 2nd printing. Stock No. 024-011-00150-6. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 774 pp.
Bandy, W.R. & G.R. Haste. 1991. Running Line, Recollections of Surveyors. USDI Bureau of Land Management BLM/SC/GI-91/001+9600. U.S. Government Printing Office. 66 pp.
Cazier, L. 1976. Surveys and Surveyors of the Public Domain, 1785-1975. USDI Bureau of Land Management. Stock No. 024-011-00083-6. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 228 pp.

 

Online Resources

Online Resources

GLO (Public Land Survey System, or PLSS)

Overview
  • Overview, Oregon -- see Loy et al. (2001), Atlas of Oregon : 18-19. [Not available digitally].

Survey Notes and Plat Maps
U.S. Coast Survey

Topographic maps ("T-sheets") of the U.S. Coast Survey (later called U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, and more recently the National Geodetic Survey) have been integrated whenever possible with GLO data because of the data-rich detail they impart to map products. They were based on meticulous field mapping conducted between 1852 and 1889. Cartography of the Coast Survey maps was superior to that of the GLO township plat maps, and when geo-referenced, is substituted for linework shown in the plat maps. 

The Coast Survey maps provide highly accurate delineations of small-patch vegetation and stream alignments at a level of detail not possible from GLO data, while the GLO data provide information on vegetation, streams, and cultural features that are not available from Coast Survey data. When combined, the two sources of information provide high-quality cartography on the composition and extent of various vegetation types at the time of survey.

Land cover symbology used in the Coast Survey maps was interpreted by Shalowitz (1964) and Graves et al. (1995), and provides important detail in vegetation structure and hydrology.

Oregon
Washington
 

Regional GLO and Other Historical Vegetation Websites

Oregon
  • Blue Mountains (David Powell, U.S. Forest Service, Umatilla National Forest)
Washington
  • Blue Mountains (David Powell, U.S. Forest Service, Umatilla National Forest)
  • San Juan Islands (Tom Schroeder) 
 

History of Surveying

 

Professional Surveyors Associations in Pacific Northwest

 

References

  • Shalowitz, Aaron L., and Michael W. Reed. Shore and Sea Boundaries. Office of Coast Survey, 1964.
  • Graves, Jon K., John A. Christy, Patrick A. Clinton, Peter L. Britz. Historic Habitats of the Lower Columbia River. Astoria: Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce, 1995.

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

We thank the Oregon State Office of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) for freely providing ongoing access to GLO data and expert advice from its cadastral survey staff.

Since 1994, funding for various portions of this project has been provided by:

  • City of Portland
  • Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership
  • Metro
  • Oregon Community Foundation
  • Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife
  • Oregon Department of State Lands
  • Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board
  • The Nature Conservancy
  • USDI Bureau of Land Management (Eugene District, Medford District, Roseburg District, Salem District, Oregon State Office)
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • USDA Forest Service

Oregon Statewide Historical Vegetation

Oregon Statewide Historical Vegetation

As part of the Oregon Gap Analysis Program, ORBIC worked with the Defenders of Wildlife and Jim Strittholt to develop the first statewide map depicting historical vegetation. Scale varies throughout the coverage, depending on the source data, but the overall scale is 1:100,000. The map was first compiled in 1999 and is updated as needed. It integrates several sources of historical spatial data:

  1. The Andrews and Cowlin timber maps for Oregon and Washington (1936-1937, digitized by USFS 1994-1996, scale = 1:253,440), 
  2. GLO-based coverage where available (compiled 1994-present by ORBIC and partners, scale = 1:24,000), 
  3. NRCS SSURGO data (scale = 1:24,000), and 
  4. Current land cover mapping from the USDI Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

The Andrews and Cowlin layer forms the background into which more detailed coverages were incorporated. It was mapped to forest type, with a secondary classification for young forests. Because the layer lacked detail for non-forest vegetation, ORBIC supplemented the data with more detailed information contained in the sources cited above. Because SSURGO data present potential vegetation based on soil types, they were used to replace post-settlement land cover types such as agriculture or urban occurring on well-defined riparian and floodplain soils. Where SSURGO data were not available, these types were replaced with potential pre-settlement vegetation based on the composition of adjacent polygons, and the presence of rivers and streams for riparian areas and bottomlands. Recent burns and regenerating young forests were reverted to forest. 

Download the Oregon Statewide Composite Historical Vegetation map. It is also posted on the Available Historical Maps page.

In addition, three statewide 1851 historical land cover maps are available on the OregonExplorer website (to view layer descriptions, expand the Habitats and Vegetation layer drop-down, then the Land Cover drop-down, in the left-hand Layers menu in the map viewer).

 

Vegetation & Habitat Maps

Vegetation & Habitat Maps

Oregon Statewide Habitat Map. This is a map of Oregon's 77 habitats created in 2018, based on 2016 imagery. The map is to be used to help map the distribution of wildlife habitat in Oregon, and is a reflect of current vegetation conditions across the state. View metadata and download map.

Rangeland Vegetation Maps and Tools. INR is working with many collaborators to develop rangeland vegetation maps and tools to support the SageCon Partnership to reduce threats to the sagebrush ecosystem, sage-grouse and ranching communities in Oregon.

Integrated Landscape Assessment Project Maps. The Integrated Landscape Assessment Project for Oregon, Washington, Arizona, and New Mexico produced many vegetation maps and datasets for Oregon, including existing vegetation and forest structure as well as predicted vegetation based on various management and climate states.

NW ReGAP Ecological Systems Map of Oregon. In the 2000s ORBIC received funding from OWEB to integrate all available 1:24,000 vegetation maps and coverages. Previously, the only statewide vegetation or land coverages available for Oregon had been the two OR-GAP coverages described below. ORBIC and OR-GAP has worked hard to link all existing vegetation coverages to the National Vegetation Classification System. The newest version of the map, a grid of ecological systems throughout Oregon, was created in 2010 and is available from the Oregon DAS GEO Spatial Data Library

Oregon Wetlands Cover. The Oregon Wetlands Cover represents the most comprehensive dataset available for the location and composition of the state's wetlands. It uses as a base all available digital data from the National Wetland Inventory (NWI; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, USFWS), to which has been added draft NWI mapping (Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center and The Wetlands Conservancy, ORNHIC and TWC), mapping from Local Wetland Inventories (LWIs; Department of State Lands, DSL), wetlands along state highways (Oregon Department of Transportation, ODOT), and mapping of individual sites by a variety of federal, state, academic, and nonprofit sources. View map description and download layer.

Oregon's greatest wetlands. Oregon has lost over half of the wetlands present when the first settlers arrived in the 1800s. To ensure that the remaining wetlands are conserved, The Wetlands Conservancy has identified Oregon's Greatest Wetlands. While all wetlands are important, Oregon's Greatest Wetlands identifies the most biologically significant wetlands in Oregon. A group of twenty wetland ecologists, familiar with the entire state of Oregon, identified the locations of the biologically important wetlands. The next step was collecting and adding information for wetland resources identified by the Oregon Natural Heritage Program, National Wetlands Inventory, Coastal, Klamath and Willamette Valley Sub Basin Plans, and Oregon Biodiversity Program. Wetland ecologists were then asked to review and add to the maps. Simultaneously we collected existing physiographic and biological information about each of the sites. View map description and download layer.

 

Natural Areas

Natural Areas

The Oregon Legislature established the Oregon Natural Areas Program in 1979 as a way to protect high quality native ecosystems and rare plant and animal species. The program is managed by the Oregon Parks and Recreation Department and is guided by the Oregon Natural Area Plan, a document that describes the natural areas program in Oregon. The plan lists the ecosystems and species that drive the program, guides the selection of priority areas for the establishment of new natural areas, and assists researchers, educators, and the public in learning about or managing designated natural areas. INR's Oregon Biodiversity Information Center (ORBIC) helped develop the Oregon Natural Areas Plan and assists the Oregon Parks and Recreation Department by maintaining natural areas records, providing scientific advice and coordinating with regional and national natural areas programs. ORBIC has a long history working with the Natural Areas Program and has helped guide it since 1979, when ORBIC was called the Oregon Natural Heritage Program.

If you are interested in learning more about our work, please contact Rachel Brunner

Core Work

Dedicated Natural Heritage Conservation Areas

Dedicated Natural Heritage Conservation Areas

Dedicated natural areas in Oregon are called Natural Heritage Conservation Areas. For an area to be dedicated, it must first be registered, and must also have a management plan describing how the key biological resources will be managed. Natural Heritage Conservation Areas are similar to federal Research Natural Areas in that they are designed to serve educators, researchers, resource managers and the general public with access to Oregon's natural heritage resources far into the future. INR's Oregon Biodiversity Information Center assists state agencies in identifying candidate sites for dedication. 

Eight sites are currently dedicated: 

Cape Blanco

Cape Meares

Cascade Head                 

Netarts Spit

Onion Peak               

Saddle Mountain

Steens Summit

Winchuck Slope

Additional information on these sites is available from ORBIC.

Natural Areas Plans

Natural Areas Plans

2020 Oregon Natural Areas Plan

A draft of the 2020 Natural Areas Plan has been completed, and is out for review. Also available is a spreadsheet of Natural Areas names, status, and acreage. An updated Oregon's Natural Areas 2020 geodatabase contains a spatial layer of sites.

2015 Oregon Natural Areas Plan

The 2015 Oregon Natural Areas Plan lists the rare species, ecosystems, and geological features present in Oregon and where they are represented by protected lands. In preparation for the 2015 Plan update, an Oregon's Natural Areas Geodatabase (2015) was produced. This spatial layer contains all registered and dedicated sites and those natural areas included in the Oregon Natural Areas Plan as conserving rare species, habitats, or geological features. If you find errors or omissions in this geodatabase please contact Lindsey Wise with updated information.

Natural Areas Plan History

The Oregon Legislature established the Oregon Natural Areas Program in 1979 as a way to protect high quality native ecosystems and rare plant and animal species. The program is managed by the Oregon Parks and Recreation Department and is guided by the Oregon Natural Area Plan, a document that describes the natural areas program in Oregon. The plan lists the ecosystems and species that drive the program, guides the selection of priority areas for the establishment of new natural areas, and assists researchers, educators, and the public in learning about or managing designated natural areas. INR's Oregon Biodiversity Information Center (ORBIC) helped develop the Oregon Natural Areas Plan and assists the Oregon Parks and Recreation Department by maintaining natural areas records, providing scientific advice and coordinating with regional and national natural areas programs. ORBIC has a long history working with the Natural Areas Program and has helped guide it since 1979, when ORBIC was called the Oregon Natural Heritage Program.

The goals of the Oregon Natural Areas Program are to:

  1. Create a discrete and limited system of natural areas representing the full range of Oregon's natural heritage resources. These areas are to be used for scientific research, education and nature interpretation.
  2. Establish a process and means for public and private sector voluntary cooperation in the development of a system of natural areas.
  3. Provide advice to managers of natural areas on the management and use of such areas and provide information concerning the conservation of natural heritage resources and special species to the state, federal and local agencies that manage lands within Oregon.   

The Oregon Natural Areas program collaborates with regional and national natural areas programs, including an interagency Natural Areas Committee, that is overseen by the U.S. Forest Service. This committee meets twice a year, and has representatives from the federal land management agencies, state agencies, The Nature Conservancy, and others interested in Natural Areas. The Natural Areas Association helps coordinate efforts throughout the U.S. and the world, and promotes information exchange regarding the management and establishment of natural areas.

Federal, state, and private organizations have interests in preserving Oregon's natural areas for the benefits these areas provide. To researchers and educators, natural areas provide a relatively undisturbed setting in which to study native ecosystems and species. To resource managers, natural areas can provide a setting for understanding important statewide land management issues. To the public, natural areas provide access to native forests, grasslands, tide pools, bogs, and sagebrush communities. Natural areas also provide habitat for Oregon’s rarest plants and animals like the Fender's Blue Butterfly, the emblem of INR's Natural Areas Program.

Designating natural areas requires sound information regarding characteristics of potential sites, and maintaining areas requires knowledge of proper management techniques. The Natural Areas Program supports the work of agencies and organizations throughout the state by providing such information. INR is part of the Natural Areas Committee, an interagency effort to establish natural areas led by the US Forest Service.

Related Materials 

2015 Oregon Natural Areas Plan (2015) (PDF) - Adopted by the Oregon Parks and Recreation Department in January, 2016.

Oregon Natural Areas Plan (2010) (PDF) - The plan was adopted by the State Land Board on December 14, 2010. This book describes the Natural Areas Program in Oregon. This is Oregon’s first Natural Areas Plan, and serves as an update to the “Oregon Natural Heritage Plan” which was released every 5 years, from 1988 – 2003. 

Register of Natural Heritage Resources - The Oregon Register lists Oregon's most important sites with significant natural heritage resources. Sites on the list are primarily on state lands, but also includes voluntarily listed sites on private or municipal lands, and a few federally owned sites which were registered before they were acquired by the government.  Any natural area in the state can become part of the Registry through a voluntary process established by the Oregon Legislature. 

List of Dedicated Natural Heritage Conservation Areas - Sites on the Register of Natural Heritage Resources can also be designated as Dedicated Natural Heritage Conservation Areas.  These sites have additional protections to sites on the Registry of Natural Heritage Resources.

List of Research Natural Areas - These are natural areas on federal lands, that were designated by federal agencies for research purposes. 

Oregon Natural Areas Act (2012) - These laws set out the definitions of the Natural Areas Program, the Advisory Committee, agency duties, the process of dedicating natural areas, and other findings. All Oregon laws are viewable on the Oregon laws search site, and laws related to state lands can be found with Chapter 273, with the Natural Areas Program law starting at 273.563.

Register of Natural Heritage Resources

Oregon State Register of Natural Heritage Resources

The Oregon Register lists Oregon's most important sites with significant natural heritage resources. Sites on the list are primarily on state lands, but also includes voluntarily listed sites on private or municipal lands, and a few federally owned sites that were registered before they were acquired by the government. The Council recommends candidates for registration to the State Land Board for approval. There are 100 natural areas currently registered. For the names and owners of the sites listed on the register, see below. Additional information on these sites, including a basic registry form, is available from ORBIC. 

Status as of June 30, 2015

Sites currently on the Register:
(owner in parenthesis followed by the year the site was added to the register)

  • Ace Williams Mountain (BLM) - 2001
  • Ainsworth (OPRD) - 1993
  • Bald Hill (City of Corvallis) - 1991
  • Bandon Marsh (USFWS) - 2002
  • Beaver Creek (OPRD) – 2009
  • Benson Addition, Multnomah Falls (OPRD) - 1991
  • Billy Burr Lake (USFWS) - 1993
  • Blacklock Point (OPRD) - 1988
  • Blind Slough Swamp Preserve (TNC) - 1995
  • Blowout Ponds (OPRD) - 1993
  • Borax Lake Preserve (TNC) - 1994
  • Bridal Veil Falls (OPRD) - 1993
  • Bull Flat (DSL) - 1990
  • Camassia Preserve (TNC) - 2003
  • Cape Arago Marine Gardens (OPRD) - 1992
  • Cape Blanco (OPRD) – dedicated in 1991
  • Cape Ferrelo (OPRD) - 1999
  • Cape Lookout (OPRD) - 1988
  • Cape Meares (OPRD) – dedicated in 1988
  • Cape Sebastian (OPRD) - 1999
  • Carl Washburn Blowout Ponds (OPRD) - 1993
  • Cascade Head Preserve (TNC) - dedicated in 1985
  • Clear Lake Ridge Preserve (TNC) - 1989
  • Coburg Ridge Preserve (TNC) – 2008
  • Collier State Park (OPRD) - 1992
  • Columbia Oaks (Hood River Co, OPRD) - 1993
  • Conley Lake (ODFW) - 1999
  • Coopey Falls (OPRD) - 1993
  • Crissey Field (OPRD) - 1999
  • Crooked Creek (OPRD) - 1991
  • Crook Point (USFWS) -1998
  • Crump Lake Preserve (TNC) - 1993
  • Crump Lake South (DSL) - 1990
  • Davis Slough (DSL) - 1989
  • Denman Vernal Pools (ODFW) - 1994
  • Eight Dollar Mountain (OPRD, TNC) - 1988
  • Elowah Falls (OPRD) - 1993
  • Flagg Island (ODOT) - 1993
  • Gary & Chatham Islands (Multnomah Co) - 1992
  • Givan Park (Jackson Co.) - 1993
  • Hart Mountain additions (USFWS) – 1991, 1994
  • Humbug Mountain (OPRD) - 1999
  • Illinois River Forks (OPRD) - 1997
  • Indian Sands (OPRD) - 1991
  • Jackson-Frazier Wetlands (Benton County) - 1991
  • Juniper Hills Preserve (TNC) - 1998
  • Kingston Prairie Preserve (TNC) - 1997
  • Knappa Slough Island (DSL) - 1999
  • Ladd Marsh (ODFW) – 1988, 2004
  • Latourell Falls (OPRD) - 1993
  • Lindsay Prairie Preserve (TNC) - 1988
  • Little North Santiam River (FS) - 1991
  • Little Rock Island and Shore (PRD) - 1988
  • Logan Valley (Burns Paiute Tribe) - 1999
  • Luckiamute Landing (OPRD) - 1993
  • Memaloose (OPRD) - 1993
  • Middle Fork John Day River Preserve - Dunston (TNC) - 1990
  • Middle Fork John Day River Preserve - Oxbow (TNC) - 1999
  • Mill Creek Ridge (BLM) - 1991 & (CLT) 2014
  • Miller Island (ODFW) - 1992
  • Multnomah Falls (OPRD, FS) - 1991
  • Nehalem Bay (OPRD) - 1991
  • Nesika Beach Preserve (TNC) -1998
  • Nestucca Bay (DSL) - 1994
  • Netarts Spit (OPRD) – dedicated in 1989
  • Noble Oaks (Willamina) (TNC) – 2014, 2015
  • North Fork Owyhee River (BLM) - 2004
  • Ochoco State Wayside (OPRD) - 1990
  • Onion Peak Preserve (DSL, ODF, NCLC) – dedicated in 1988
  • Ophir Dunes (ODOT) - 1988
  • Otter Point (OPRD) – 1999
  • Piute Creek (DSL) - 1992
  • Pumpkin Ridge (Private - GROWISER) - 1994
  • Rattlesnake Butte (CTGR) - 1986
  • Rooster Rock (OPRD) – 1990
  • Rough and Ready Creek Preserve (TNC) - 1994
  • Rough and Ready State Wayside (OPRD) - 1989
  • Round Top Butte Preserve (TNC) - 1986
  • Rowena Plateau (OPRD) - 1993
  • Saddle Mountain (OPRD) – dedicated in 2005
  • Scappoose Bay (OPRD) -1999
  • Simpson Reef – Cape Arago (DSL) - 1992
  • Skull & Little Wallace Island (DSL) - 1991
  • Smith Island (DSL) - 1989
  • Snag Boat Bend (USFWS) - 1999
  • South Grouse Gap (FS) - 1998
  • South Slough (DSL) - 1991
  • Succor Creek (PRD) – 1988
  • Squally Point Dunes (OPRD) - 1993
  • Starvation Creek and Warren Creek (OPRD, FS) - 1990
  • Steens Mountain – Ankle Creek (BLM) - 2001
  • Steens Summit (DSL) - dedicated 1979
  • Succor Creek (OPRD) - 1988
  • Sycan Marsh Preserve (TNC) – 1988, 2013
  • Table Rocks (TNC, BLM) – 1986, 2008
  • Tillamook Bay Preserve (TNC) - 2011
  • Tom McCall Preserve at Rowena (TNC) - 1986
  • Twin Rocks Bluffs (OPRD) - 1999
  • Tygh Valley (OPRD) - 1991
  • Umpqua Lighthouse (OPRD) – 2002
  • Upper Klamath Lake (USFWS) - 2013
  • Wallace and Anunde Islands (USFWS) – 1993
  • Westport Slough (USFWS) - 1991
  • West Sand Island (COE) - 1988
  • Whalen Island (OPRD) - 2001
  • Whetstone Savanna Preserve (TNC) - 1995
  • Willamette Confluence Preserve (TNC) – 2010
  • Williamson River Delta Preserve (TNC) – 1997, 2007
  • Willow Creek Preserve (TNC) - 1998
  • Winchuck Slope (DSL) - dedicated 1979
  • Woodcock Creek (DSL) - 1990
  • Yamhill Oaks Preserve (TNC) – 2009, 2013
  • Zumwalt Prairie Preserve (TNC) – 2001, 2006

Ownership abbreviations:

  • CLT – Columbia Land Trust      
  • CTGR – Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde
  • DSL – Department of State Lands  
  • ODF – Department of Forestry  
  • ODFW – Department of Fish and Wildlife    
  • ODOT – Department of Transportation   
  • OPRD – Parks and Recreation Department    
  • TNC – The Nature Conservancy     
  • TWC – The Wetlands Conservancy     

Register of Natural Heritage Resources

The Oregon Register lists Oregon's most important sites with significant natural heritage resources. Sites on the list are primarily on state lands, but also includes voluntarily listed sites on private or municipal lands, and a few federally owned sites that were registered before they were acquired by the government. The Council recommends candidates for registration to the State Land Board for approval. There are 100 natural areas currently registered. For the names and owners of the sites listed on the register, see below. Additional information on these sites, including a basic registry form, is available from ORBIC. 

Oregon State Register of Natural Heritage Resources

Status as of June 30, 2015

Sites currently on the Register:
(owner in parenthesis followed by the year the site was added to the register)

  • Ace Williams Mountain (BLM) - 2001
  • Ainsworth (OPRD) - 1993
  • Bald Hill (City of Corvallis) - 1991
  • Bandon Marsh (USFWS) - 2002
  • Beaver Creek (OPRD) – 2009
  • Benson Addition, Multnomah Falls (OPRD) - 1991
  • Billy Burr Lake (USFWS) - 1993
  • Blacklock Point (OPRD) - 1988
  • Blind Slough Swamp Preserve (TNC) - 1995
  • Blowout Ponds (OPRD) - 1993
  • Borax Lake Preserve (TNC) - 1994
  • Bridal Veil Falls (OPRD) - 1993
  • Bull Flat (DSL) - 1990
  • Camassia Preserve (TNC) - 2003
  • Cape Arago Marine Gardens (OPRD) - 1992
  • Cape Blanco (OPRD) – dedicated in 1991
  • Cape Ferrelo (OPRD) - 1999
  • Cape Lookout (OPRD) - 1988
  • Cape Meares (OPRD) – dedicated in 1988
  • Cape Sebastian (OPRD) - 1999
  • Carl Washburn Blowout Ponds (OPRD) - 1993
  • Cascade Head Preserve (TNC) - dedicated in 1985
  • Clear Lake Ridge Preserve (TNC) - 1989
  • Coburg Ridge Preserve (TNC) – 2008
  • Collier State Park (OPRD) - 1992
  • Columbia Oaks (Hood River Co, OPRD) - 1993
  • Conley Lake (ODFW) - 1999
  • Coopey Falls (OPRD) - 1993
  • Crissey Field (OPRD) - 1999
  • Crooked Creek (OPRD) - 1991
  • Crook Point (USFWS) -1998
  • Crump Lake Preserve (TNC) - 1993
  • Crump Lake South (DSL) - 1990
  • Davis Slough (DSL) - 1989
  • Denman Vernal Pools (ODFW) - 1994
  • Eight Dollar Mountain (OPRD, TNC) - 1988
  • Elowah Falls (OPRD) - 1993
  • Flagg Island (ODOT) - 1993
  • Gary & Chatham Islands (Multnomah Co) - 1992
  • Givan Park (Jackson Co.) - 1993
  • Hart Mountain additions (USFWS) – 1991, 1994
  • Humbug Mountain (OPRD) - 1999
  • Illinois River Forks (OPRD) - 1997
  • Indian Sands (OPRD) - 1991
  • Jackson-Frazier Wetlands (Benton County) - 1991
  • Juniper Hills Preserve (TNC) - 1998
  • Kingston Prairie Preserve (TNC) - 1997
  • Knappa Slough Island (DSL) - 1999
  • Ladd Marsh (ODFW) – 1988, 2004
  • Latourell Falls (OPRD) - 1993
  • Lindsay Prairie Preserve (TNC) - 1988
  • Little North Santiam River (FS) - 1991
  • Little Rock Island and Shore (PRD) - 1988
  • Logan Valley (Burns Paiute Tribe) - 1999
  • Luckiamute Landing (OPRD) - 1993
  • Memaloose (OPRD) - 1993
  • Middle Fork John Day River Preserve - Dunston (TNC) - 1990
  • Middle Fork John Day River Preserve - Oxbow (TNC) - 1999
  • Mill Creek Ridge (BLM) - 1991 & (CLT) 2014
  • Miller Island (ODFW) - 1992
  • Multnomah Falls (OPRD, FS) - 1991
  • Nehalem Bay (OPRD) - 1991
  • Nesika Beach Preserve (TNC) -1998
  • Nestucca Bay (DSL) - 1994
  • Netarts Spit (OPRD) – dedicated in 1989
  • Noble Oaks (Willamina) (TNC) – 2014, 2015
  • North Fork Owyhee River (BLM) - 2004
  • Ochoco State Wayside (OPRD) - 1990
  • Onion Peak Preserve (DSL, ODF, NCLC) – dedicated in 1988
  • Ophir Dunes (ODOT) - 1988
  • Otter Point (OPRD) – 1999
  • Piute Creek (DSL) - 1992
  • Pumpkin Ridge (Private - GROWISER) - 1994
  • Rattlesnake Butte (CTGR) - 1986
  • Rooster Rock (OPRD) – 1990
  • Rough and Ready Creek Preserve (TNC) - 1994
  • Rough and Ready State Wayside (OPRD) - 1989
  • Round Top Butte Preserve (TNC) - 1986
  • Rowena Plateau (OPRD) - 1993
  • Saddle Mountain (OPRD) – dedicated in 2005
  • Scappoose Bay (OPRD) -1999
  • Simpson Reef – Cape Arago (DSL) - 1992
  • Skull & Little Wallace Island (DSL) - 1991
  • Smith Island (DSL) - 1989
  • Snag Boat Bend (USFWS) - 1999
  • South Grouse Gap (FS) - 1998
  • South Slough (DSL) - 1991
  • Succor Creek (PRD) – 1988
  • Squally Point Dunes (OPRD) - 1993
  • Starvation Creek and Warren Creek (OPRD, FS) - 1990
  • Steens Mountain – Ankle Creek (BLM) - 2001
  • Steens Summit (DSL) - dedicated 1979
  • Succor Creek (OPRD) - 1988
  • Sycan Marsh Preserve (TNC) – 1988, 2013
  • Table Rocks (TNC, BLM) – 1986, 2008
  • Tillamook Bay Preserve (TNC) - 2011
  • Tom McCall Preserve at Rowena (TNC) - 1986
  • Twin Rocks Bluffs (OPRD) - 1999
  • Tygh Valley (OPRD) - 1991
  • Umpqua Lighthouse (OPRD) – 2002
  • Upper Klamath Lake (USFWS) - 2013
  • Wallace and Anunde Islands (USFWS) – 1993
  • Westport Slough (USFWS) - 1991
  • West Sand Island (COE) - 1988
  • Whalen Island (OPRD) - 2001
  • Whetstone Savanna Preserve (TNC) - 1995
  • Willamette Confluence Preserve (TNC) – 2010
  • Williamson River Delta Preserve (TNC) – 1997, 2007
  • Willow Creek Preserve (TNC) - 1998
  • Winchuck Slope (DSL) - dedicated 1979
  • Woodcock Creek (DSL) - 1990
  • Yamhill Oaks Preserve (TNC) – 2009, 2013
  • Zumwalt Prairie Preserve (TNC) – 2001, 2006

Ownership abbreviations:

  • CLT – Columbia Land Trust      
  • CTGR – Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde
  • DSL – Department of State Lands  
  • ODF – Department of Forestry  
  • ODFW – Department of Fish and Wildlife    
  • ODOT – Department of Transportation   
  • OPRD – Parks and Recreation Department    
  • TNC – The Nature Conservancy     
  • TWC – The Wetlands Conservancy     

Research Natural Areas

Research Natural Areas

Research Natural Areas (RNA) are federal lands managed for research and education purposes.  The majority of designated natural areas in Oregon are part of the federal Research Natural Areas program.

The RNA program was created to:

  1. Preserve examples of all significant natural ecosystems for comparison with those influenced by man
  2. Provide educational and research areas for ecological and environmental studies
  3. Preserve gene pools of typical and endangered plants and animals

In the Pacific Northwest, the DoD Army Corps of Engineers, USDA Forest Service, USDI National Park Service, USDI Bureau of Land Management, USDI Fish and Wildlife Service, and the US Department of Energy all participate in the program. The U.S. Forest Service has provided a regional RNA coordinator to help manage the Pacific Northwest Interagency Natural Areas Network and RNA committee. This committee meets biannually to promote the program and coordination on the establishment and management of these areas.

In addition to RNAs, the Bureau of Land Management has established many sites that have significant natural area values as Areas of Critical Environmental Concern. These sites are recognized along with RNAs, State Natural Heritage Conservation Areas, and Marine Reserves as critical components of the natural area network. RNAs and ACECs are included in the 2010 map and listing of natural areas of Oregon (from 2010 Natural Areas Plan).

Rare Species

Rare Species

INR's Oregon Biodiversity Information Center (ORBIC) was formed in large part to aid in the conservation of Oregon's rare species and ecosystems. The rich diversity of ecosystems and native plants and animals is one of Oregon's most distinctive and valued qualities. Oregon has rain forests, dry Ponderosa pine forests, oak woodlands, alpine meadows, prairies, deserts, marshes, estuaries, dunes, rocky headlands, lakes and streams, and an abundance of plants, animals, fungi, algae, and other species that inhabit them.

ORBIC helps preserve these species and habitats in Oregon by cataloging rare species locations, ranking species by their rarity and risk of extirpation, mapping ecosystem types and habitats, creating species distribution models, monitoring snowy plovers on the Oregon coast, allocating Section 6 funds to endangered invertebrate projects, and participating in a variety of local and regional projects with a wide range of agencies, organizations, and partnerships.

You can learn more about the species on our rare species list and contribute your own observations to assist in conservation efforts on our Rare Species of Oregon iNaturalist Project. The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife also has an Oregon Wildlife Conservation iNaturalist Project focusing on Oregon Conservation Strategy Species and other Oregon wildlife.

Additional archived projects include a downloadable Excel spreadsheet Rare Plant Guide to Oregon's threatened and endangered plants and state and global rank assessments for several species under the Survey and Manage program for the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management.

If you are interested in learning more about our work, please contact Eleanor Gaines (for animals) and contact Gabriel Campbell (for plants). 

Endangered Invertebrates

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) has granted Oregon Parks and Recreation Department’s Natural Areas Program limited authority to administer and manage a program for federally threatened and endangered invertebrate species, as provided under Section 6 of the US Federal Endangered Species Act.

ORBIC supports the rare and endangered invertebrate program in the following ways:

  • Gather as much information as possible on those invertebrates that are currently considered rare, threatened or endangered in order to enable managers to protect critical habitat or populations.
  • Promote inventory and taxonomic work on undescribed or poorly known species which may face significant threats.
  • Assist in the USFWS recovery efforts for the three invertebrates already protected under the Endangered Species Act. This includes coordination, inventory, management and research projects for the Oregon silverspot butterfly, the Fender's blue butterfly, Taylor’s checkerspot butterfly,  Franklin’s bumblebee, and the vernal pool fairy shrimp.

The list of invertebrate species in the book Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species of Oregon reflects our current understanding of the status of the rare invertebrates in Oregon. The list, however, represents only a fraction of the diversity of invertebrate species found in Oregon, and is generally biased towards groups that have been well studied (e.g. caddisflies, butterflies, mollusks), and is lacking for groups of other species that are poorly known. In cooperation with federal agencies and universities, we are hopeful that our ongoing efforts and partnerships will continue to build upon our current knowledge of rare invertebrate species in Oregon.

You can download a spreadsheet of the invertebrate list or view the PDF of our current and archived RTE books at our Rare Species page.

Oregon Rare Species Publications

One of the Oregon Biodiversity Information Center's main tasks is to list and rank rare, threatened, and endangered (RTE) species in Oregon. Using our Biotics biodiversity database of species occurrences throughout the state and by consulting with agencies, specialists, academics, and the public, ORBIC reviews and publishes this list every two to three years.

Species ranks are important for natural resource management, prioritization of restoration or conservation efforts, and to highlight species that need more research or protection. The ranks that ORBIC produces are shared internationally through the NatureServe network of natural heritage programs and conservation data centers.

Definitions of ranks, lists, and abbreviations used in the RTE publications can be found on the RTE Definitions page.

Versions of our Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Species publication that are available as PDF format are listed below with links to those documents. Paper copies of older editions of the book may be available. Details on obtaining printed copies from Odin Ink at PSU are at the bottom of the page.

Oregon Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Species Publications

2023 Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Species of Oregon (in prep.)
The full publication is in prep. In the meantime, excerpts will be posted as they become available.    
Excerpts by Category PDF Excerpts Excel Excerpts
Vascular Plants - final version, January 2023 2023 Vascular Plant List 2023-rte-vascs.xlsx
Non-Vascular Plants and Fungi - final version, January 2023 2023 Non-Vascular Plant and Fungi List 2023-rte-nonvascs.xlsx
Additional Resources    
Summary of Vascular and Non-Vascular Plant and Fungi Changes 2022 Plant and Fungi Species Recommendations (Excel)  
Codes and Abbreviations 2023 Codes and Abbreviations  

2019 Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Species of Oregon
Full 2019 Publication in PDF Format 133 pages 3.1 MB
Excerpts by Category PDF Excerpts Excel Excerpts
Vascular Plants Vascular Plant List with Drops and Name Changes 2019-rte-vascs.xlsx
Non-Vascular Plants and Fungi Non-Vascular Plant List with Drops and Name Changes 2019-rte-nonvascs.xlsx
Vertebrate Animals Vertebrate Animal List with Drops and Name Changes 2019-rte-verts.xlsx
Invertebrate Animals Invertebrate Animal List with Drops and Name Changes 2019-rte-inverts.xlsx
Additional Resources    
Summary of Vascular and Non-Vascular Plant and Fungi Changes ORBIC 2018 Rare Plant and Fungi Meeting Recommendations.xlsx  
Summary of Vertebrate Animal Changes Book_verts_2019_changes.xlsx  
Summary of Invertebrate Animal Changes Book_Inverts_2019_changes.xlsx  

 

2016 Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Species of Oregon

Full 2016 Publication in PDF Format 130 pages 2.3 MB
Excerpts by Category PDF Excerpts Excel Excerpts
Vascular Plants Vascular Plant List 2016-rte-vascs.xlsx
Non-Vascular Plants and Fungi Non-Vascular Plants and Fungi List 2016-rte-nonvascs.xlsx
Vertebrate Animals Vertebrate Animal List 2016-rte-verts.xlsx
Invertebrate Animals Invertebrate Animal List 2016-rte-inverts.xlsx
Additional Resources PDF Resources Excel Resources
Ecoregion Map OR Ecoregion and County Map  
Codes Used 2016 Codes  
Summary of Vascular Plant Changes   vasc_2016_changes_summary.xlsx
Summary of Non-vascular and Fungi Changes   nonvas_2016_changes_summary.xlsx
Summary of Animal Changes   2016_rte_animal_changes_summary.xlsx
Errata   errata_040517.xslx

2013 Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Species of Oregon

Full 2013 Publication in PDF Format 111 pages 1.1 MB
Excerpts by Category PDF Exerpts Excel Excerpts
Vascular Plants Vascular Plant List 2013-vascs.xlsx
Non-vascular Plants/Fungi Non-Vascular Plant/Fungi List 2013-nonvascs.xlsx
Vertebrate Animals Vertebrate Animal List 2013-verts.xlsx*
Invertebrate Animals Invertebrate Animal List 2013-inverts.xlsx**
Additional Resources PDF Resources Excel Resources
Ecoregion Map OR Ecoregion and County Map  
Codes Used 2013 Codes  
County Names and Abbreviations   ORCountyAbbrev.xlsx
Summary of Vascular Changes   2013-vasc-rank-changes.xls
Summary of Non-Vascular Changes   2013-nonvasc-changes.xls

* Prior to 10/10/2013, this file had some errors in the federal status column. These have been corrected in the current file.

** Updated 12/29/2014. Updated distribution of Pterostichus johnsoni and federal status of Euphydryas editha taylori.

2010 Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Species of Oregon

Full 2010 Publication in PDF Format 105 pages 1.6 MB
Excerpts by Category PDF Exerpts Excel Excerpts
Vascular Plants Vascular Plant List 2010-vascs.xls
Non-vascular Plants/Fungi Non-Vascular Plant/Fungi List 2010-nonvascs.xls
Vertebrates Vertebrate List 2010-verts.xls
Invertebrates Invertebrate List 2010-inverts.xls
Additional Resources    
Ecoregion Map OR Ecoregion and County Map  
Codes Used 2010 Codes  

2007 Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Species of Oregon

Full 2007 Publication in PDF Format 100 pages 1.3 MB
Excerpts by Category Excel Sheet
Vascular Plants 2007-vascs.xls
Non-vascular Plants/Fungi 2007-nonvascs.xls
Vertebrates 2007-verts.xls
Invertebrates 2007-inverts.xls

2004 Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Species of Oregon

Full 2004 Publication in PDF Format 105 pages 1.3 MB
Excerpts by Category Process Notes Excel Sheet
Vascular Plants Vascular Process Notes Vascular Plant List
Non-vascular Plants/Fungi Nonvascular Process Notes Non-Vascular Plant/Fungi List
Vertebrates Vertebrate Process Notes Vertebrate List
Invertebrates Invertebrate Process Notes Invertebrate List

Archived Rare Species Publications

Year

Title

# Pages

Size (mb)

2001

Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Plants and Animals of Oregon

92

.389

1998

Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Species of Oregon

88

5.39

1995

Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Plants and Animals of Oregon

84

6.0

1993

Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Plants and Animals of Oregon

80

6.5

1991

Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Plants and Animals of Oregon

64

4.8

1989

Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Plants and Animals of Oregon

43

5.4

1987

Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Plants and Animals of Oregon

41

3.0

1985

Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Plants and Animals of Oregon

35

2.5

1983

Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Plants and Animals of Oregon

32

2.0

1979

Rare, Threatened and Endangered Vascular Plants in Oregon (auth. Jean Siddall et al.)

114

5.8

Notes on Species Lists in PDF and Spreadsheet Formats

These spreadsheets contain the same information in the RTE publication, but in an easily sortable format. Files are Microsoft Office and Open Office compatible.

A note on federal status: Before 2019, in the book and the PDF lists, federal status was reported on the state level. In the Excel lists, federal status was reported on the national level. For example, Columbia spotted frog is a federal Candidate in Oregon (C), but other populations in the US do not have this status, so its national federal status is partial status (PS). After 2019, both the PDFs and Excel excerpts only report the federal status as it applies to populations in Oregon.

Printed Books from Odin Ink

The 2016, 2013, and 2010 editions of the RTE book are available for printing from Odin Ink, an on-demand printing company at PSU. Printed books are about $9.00, depending on page number, plus shipping and handling. Shipping generally costs about $7.00 flat rate. Bulk order discounts may be available. Call Odin Ink at (503) 226-2631, or e-mail [email protected] to place your order.

Rare Species Ranking, Definitions, and Documentation

Ranking Systems

An important responsibility of ORBIC is to review and rank rare, threatened, and endangered species of Oregon. We assign Heritage Ranks to animals, plants, and fungi that are or may become rare in Oregon. Heritage Ranks are decided through expert review, discussion, input from interested parties, and trends in sightings and population data.

Heritage Ranks

The Heritage Ranks are a part of an international ranking system first developed by The Nature Conservancy and now managed by NatureServe. This system is used by Heritage programs in all 50 states in the USA, at the 8 Canadian Conservation Data Centres, and network partners in several Latin American countries. A brief definition of these ranks can be found below. You can find more detailed discussion of these ranks at NatureServe's Conservation Status page.

In addition to ranking each species' conservation status, Heritage programs also rank each occurrence, or population group, of species that are found in each state. If you are interested in learning how we rank occurrences, see the Ranking Species Occurrences - A Generic Approach article by NatureServe, updated in January 2008. More background information on occurrence ranking can be found in the NatureServe Ranking Methodology publication from April 2009.

State and Federal Ranking Systems

In addition to our Heritage Ranks, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and the Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) also rank species. We include these rankings in our publication, Rare,Threatened and Endangered Species of Oregon.

You can view the current ODFW and USFWS rankings for vertebrates at ODFW's Wildlife Division. ODFW has also compiled a Sensitive Species list to address species which are not currently considered threatened but which may need proactive protection to maintain their populations. Current ODA plant listings are found at their Plant Conservation pages.

Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Species of Oregon

ORBIC publishes this book every two or three years with updated ranks for rare species in Oregon. The latest version of the RTE book is available as a PDF file at our Rare Species Lists page. Archived PDF versions of the RTE books are also available on this page. Paper copies of older editions of the book may be available. If you are interested in these paper editions, please contact [email protected]. Future editions of the RTE book will be available as a PDF file only.

Ranking Definitions 

ORBIC participates in an international system for ranking rare, threatened and endangered species throughout the world. The system was developed by The Nature Conservancy and is now maintained by NatureServe in cooperation with Heritage Programs or Conservation Data Centers (CDCs) in all 50 states, 9 Canadian provinces, and in 13 Latin American countries. The ranking is a 1-5 scale with 1 being critically imperiled and 5 being secure. When determining species rank many factors are taken into account, including the number of known occurrences, threats, inherent sensitivity, area occupied, and other biological and anthropogenic factors. Documentation for several species ranking decisions are available on our Ranking Documentation information (see below).

Global Ranks

Ranks are developed for different portions of a species range. The first and most critical rank describes the species status globally, and best describes the risk of extinction. This is called the Global Rank and begins with a "G". If the taxon has a trinomial (a subspecies, variety or recognized race), this is followed by a "T" rank indicator. A "Q" at the end of this line indicates the taxon has taxonomic questions. National Ranks beginning with the letter "N" describe a species' status in specific nations such as the United States, Mexico, or Canada, but are not often used in the US.

State Ranks

The most widely used NatureServe rank in the United States are the State Ranks, which describe the rarity of a species within each state's boundary. These State Ranks begin with the letter "S". Global, National, and State ranks all use a 1-5 ranking system, summarized below:

1 = Critically imperiled because of extreme rarity or because it is somehow especially vulnerable to extinction or extirpation, typically with 5 or fewer occurrences.

2 = Imperiled because of rarity or because other factors demonstrably make it very vulnerable to extinction (extirpation), typically with 6-20 occurrences.

3 = Rare, uncommon or threatened, but not immediately imperiled, typically with 21-100 occurrences.

4 = Not rare and apparently secure, but with cause for long-term concern, usually with more than 100 occurrences.

5 = Demonstrably widespread, abundant, and secure.

H = Historical Occurrence, formerly part of the native biota with the implied expectation that it may be rediscovered.

X = Presumed extirpated or extinct.

U = Unknown rank.

? = Not yet ranked or assigned rank is uncertain.

More details on the Heritage Ranking system and more definitions can be found at the NatureServe Web site and on their Conservation Status page. A complete description of the ranking process is available from Natureserve's Methodology for Assigning Ranks.

Heritage Lists

ORBIC evaluates the NatureServe ranks and further refines the data for state application through placing species on their Lists 1 through 4. The fact that Oregon and California have such high rates of species endemism was the reason for the implementation of the 1-4 Heritage Listings in Oregon and California. In particular, most heritage programs consider all G1, G2 or G3 taxa as needing protection. Based on a snapshot search of NatureServe explorer, 1138 taxa in Oregon are ranked G1-G3 (or T1-T3). Of these, 615 taxa ranked as a G3 (or T3, excluding taxa with G3 in range ranks). Many of these are rare endemics which have few documented threats. Because of this, ORBIC evaluates G3 taxa individually based the significance of the species Oregon distribution, and overall threats to the taxa. This evaluation is the primary analysis used to determine which ORBIC list they are placed on.

Brief Summary of ORBIC Lists:

List 1 contains taxa that are threatened with extinction or presumed to be extinct throughout their entire range. These are the taxa most at risk, and should be the highest priority for conservation action. Includes many rare Oregon endemic species.

List 2 contains taxa that are threatened with extirpation or presumed to be extirpated from the state of Oregon, but are secure or abundant elsewhere. These are often peripheral or disjunct species which are of concern when considering species diversity within Oregon's borders. They can be very significant when protecting the genetic diversity of a taxon. ORBIC regards extreme rarity as a significant threat and has included species which are very rare in Oregon but secure elsewhere on this list.

List 3 contains species for which more information is needed before status can be determined, but for which there is reason to believe they may be threatened or endangered in Oregon or throughout their range. Many taxa on this list may eventually be determined to belong on List 1 or List 2, so it is important that they be looked for.

List 4 contains taxa which are of conservation concern but currently do not meet the criteria for begin considered threatened or endangered. This includes taxa which are very rare but are currently secure, as well as taxa which are declining in numbers or habitat but are still too abundant to be proposed as threatened or endangered. While these taxa currently may not need the same active management attention as threatened or endangered taxa, they do require continued monitoring.

List 4 includes species that may be of conservation concern from a global or state perspective.

Ranking Documentation 

Tables of Results:

Vascular Plants  
Fungi and Lichen  
Vertebrates   
Invertebrates

Introduction to Natural Heritage Ranks

One of the Oregon Biodiversity Information Center's tasks is to rank rare species in Oregon according to how at risk they are in Oregon. For endemic species and those for which we have ranking responsibility, we also assess species' status on a global scale. The conservation status ranks for the species on the linked pages below were assigned following NatureServe's protocol on species assessment. An explanation of the methodology, a description of the factors being assessed, and the spreadsheet calculator tool can be viewed and downloaded from NatureServe's Rank Calculator website. The calculator version used for these evaluations is noted in the footer of the document; if there is no footer the version was 2.0. For a brief description of the meaning of the rank codes, see our Rare Species Ranking Definitions (section above).

Ranks are assigned as a couplet, one for the global level and one for the state/Oregon level. If only the global ranking form is available, then the species is an Oregon endemic and the state rank and information will be the same. If only the state ranking form is available, then the species occurs outside of Oregon as well and Oregon does not have global ranking authority. The global ranks for these species therefore reflect the published values in the current Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Species of Oregon list, and global ranking authority rests with another state or with NatureServe.

Many of the vascular plant species have also been assessed for vulnerability to climate change using NatureServe's Climate Change Vulnerability Index calculator. Where it has been calculated, the score from the CCVI is listed in the "Climate Vulnerability" column of the table. This rank informs the "threats" section of the Element Rank Calculator, and provides a measure of how vulnerable a species is to negative impacts from predicted climate change. See NatureServe's Climate Change Vulnerability Index page for more information or to download a copy of the calculator.

The element ranks assigned to the species under the Survey and Manage Assessment project (completed in 2004) followed a similar protocol as the NatureServe Element Ranking methodology but the calculator tool had not been developed at that time. The ranks in the tables linked above supercede all other previous ranks for a given species.

As time allows more species will have their ranks documented and published in these tables, please check back periodically for updates.

Vascular Plant Ranks

Documentation forms for Oregon state and global ranks for vascular plants are provided in the table below. For detailed information on the ranking process, see Ranking Documentation. For a brief description of the meaning of the rank codes, see Rare Species Ranking Definitions. Species for which only a G-rank form is available are Oregon endemics, thus the S-rank information for these species is the same as the G-rank.

Tables of Results: Vascular Plants  |  Fungi  |  Vertebrates   |  Invertebrates

Vascular Plants

Scientific Name Common Name Global Rank State Rank Climate Vulnerability Rank Date Climate Vulnerability Date
Abronia umbellata ssp. breviflora Pink sandverbena G4G5T2 S1 High   2016-08-17
Achnatherum hendersonii Henderson ricegrass G3 S2 Moderate   2016-08-17
Achnatherum wallowaense Wallowa ricegrass G2G3 S2S3 Moderate   2016-08-17
Agrostis howellii Howell's bentgrass G2 S2 Extreme   2016-07-08
Aliciella triodon Coyote gilia G5 S2   2016-04-20  
Allium dictuon Blue Mt. onion G2 S2 Less Vulnerable   2016-08-01
Amsinckia carinata Malheur Valley fiddleneck G2 S2 Extreme   2016-08-01
Arabis koehleri var. koehleri Koehler's rockcress G3T1Q S1 High   2016-08-15
Arabis macdonaldiana Red Mountain rockcress G2 S1 Presumed Stable 2012-12-12 2012-12-21
Arabis modesta Rogue Canyon rockcress G3 S2 Less Vulnerable   2016-08-15
Arctostaphylos hispidula Gasquet manzanita G3 S2 Moderate   2016-08-15
Artemisia pycnocephala Coastal sagewort G4G5 S1 Extreme   2020-01-07
Astragalus applegatei Applegate's milk-vetch G1 S1 High 2012-11-16 2012-11-26
Astragalus californicus California milk-vetch G3 S1 Moderate   2016-08-10
Astragalus diaphanus var. diurnus South Fork John Day milk-vetch G4T2Q S2 High   2020-05-05
Astragalus lemmonii Lemmon's milk-vetch G2 S1 High 2013-04-29 2013-04-29
Astragalus misellus var. misellus Pauper milk-vetch G3T2? S2 Moderate   2020-05-05
Astragalus mulfordiae Mulford's milk-vetch G2 S1 Moderate 2013-04-22 2015-05-27
Astragalus peckii Peck's milk-vetch G3 S3 Moderate 2010-05-28 2016-08-16
Astragalus tegetarioides Bastard kentrophyta G3 S3 High 2010-05-31 2016-08-17
Astragalus tyghensis Tygh Valley milkvetch G2 S2 High   2016-08-01
Bensoniella oregana Bensonia G3 S3 High 2010-06-18 2016-08-15
Boechera atrorubens Sickle-pod rockcress G3 S2 Less Vulnerable   2017-06-01
Boechera hastatula Hells Canyon rockcress G2 S2 Moderate   2016-08-01
Boechera horizontalis Crater Lake rockcress G1 S1 High   2016-08-01
Boechera paddoensis Mt. Adams rockcress G1 S1   2016-04-21  
Botrychium ascendens Upward-lobed moonwort G3 S2 Moderate   2017-06-01
Botrychium crenulatum Crenulate moonwort G3 S2 Moderate   2017-06-01
Botrychium lineare Slender moonwort G2G3 S1 High   2017-06-01
Botrychium montanum Mountain grape-fern G3 S2 Moderate   2017-06-01
Botrychium paradoxum Peculiar moonwort G3G4 S1 Moderate 2013-01-29 2013-01-29
Botrychium pedunculosum Stalked moonwort G2G3 S1 Moderate   2017-06-01
Botrychium pumicola Pumice grape-fern G3 S3 Moderate 2010-06-21 2017-06-01
Brodiaea terrestris Dwarf brodiaea G4G5 S2 Extreme   2020-05-06
Calamagrostis breweri Brewer's reedgrass G3 S2 Extreme   2017-06-01
Calamagrostis tweedyi Tweedy's reedgrass G3 S1   2016-04-21  
California macrophylla Large-leaved filaree G3 S1 Moderate   2020-01-31
Calochortus coxii Cox's mariposa-lily G1 S1 Moderate 2012-11-16 2012-11-16
Calochortus greenei Greene's mariposa-lily G3 S3 Moderate 2010-06-23 2017-06-01
Calochortus howellii Howell's mariposa-lily G3 S3 Moderate 2010-06-25 2017-06-01
Calochortus longebarbatus var. peckii Peck's mariposa-lily G4T3 S3 Extreme 2010-06-28 2019-08-14
Calochortus nitidus Broad fruit mariposa lily G3 S1 Less Vulnerable   2017-06-01
Calochortus persistens Siskiyou mariposa-lily G2 S1 Presumed Stable 2013-03-29 2013-03-29
Calochortus umpquaensis Umpqua mariposa lily G3 S3 Moderate   2017-06-01
Camassia howellii Howell's camas G2 S2 Less vulnerable   2016-08-01
Camissonia parvula Lewis' river suncup G5 S2   2016-06-14  
Cardamine pattersonii Saddle Mt. bittercress G2 S2 High   2016-08-01
Carex concinna Low northern sedge G5 S1   2012-09-12  
Carex davyi Dry-spike sedge G2 S1 Less vulnerable   2016-08-01
Carex idahoa Idaho Sedge G2G3 S1 Extreme   2017-06-01
Carex klamathensis Klamath sedge G2 S2 Moderate   2016-08-01
Carex tahoensis Tahoe sedge G5 S1S2 High 2016-05-11 2016-05-11
Carex tiogana Tioga pass sedge G1 S1 Extreme 2012-11-15 2012-11-15
Carex zikae Short-stemmed sedge G5 S2 Moderate   2020-05-06
Castilleja chambersii Chambers' paintbrush G1 S1 High   2016-08-01
Castilleja chlorotica Green-tinged paintbrush G3? S3? Moderate 2010-08-01 2017-06-01
Castilleja fraterna Fraternal paintbrush G2 S2 Extreme   2016-08-01
Castilleja levisecta Golden paintbrush G1 SX   2012-11-15  
Castilleja mendocinensis Mendocino coast paintbrush G2 S1 Extreme   2016-08-01
Castilleja oresbia Pale Wallowa paintbrush G3 S2S3 Presumed Stable 2013-04-10 2013-04-02
Castilleja rubida Purple alpine paintbrush G1 S1 Extreme 2019-08-15 2016-08-01
Castilleja schizotricha Split-hair paintbrush G3 S2 Moderate   2017-06-01
Chaenactis suffrutescens Shasta pincushion G3 S1   2016-04-20  
Chlorocrambe hastata Spearhead G3? S1 High   2020-01-30
Chloropyron maritimus ssp. palustris Pt. Reyes bird's-beak G4T2 S2 Extreme   2016-08-01
Cimicifuga elata var. alpestris Mountain tall bugbane G4T4 S4   2010-03-26  
Collomia mazama Mt. Mazama collomia G4 S4 High 2010-06-20  
Collomia renacta Barren valley collomia G1 S1 Presumed Stable 2012-11-09 2012-11-09
Corydalis aquae-gelidae Cold-water corydalis G3 S3 High 2010-07-10 2016-08-17
Cypripedium fasciculatum Clustered lady's-slipper G4 S2   2010-06-28  
Cryptantha grandiflora Clearwater cryptantha G3? S1S2 Moderate 2019-08-12 2019-08-13
Cryptantha leiocarpa Seaside cryptantha G3G4 S1 Extreme   2020-05-06
Delphinium leucophaeum White rock larkspur G2 S2 Moderate   2016-08-01
Delphinium oreganum Willamette Valley larkspur G3Q S1 Less vulnerable   2016-08-01
Delphinium pavonaceum Peacock larkspur G1Q S1 Less vulnerable   2016-08-01
Dicentra pauciflora Few-flowered bleedingheart G3? S1 Moderate   2020-01-23
Dodecatheon austrofrigidum Frigid shootingstar G2 S2 Moderate   2016-0-01
Enemion occidentale Western false rue-anemone G3? S1 Less Vulnerable   2020-01-23
Epilobium oreganum Oregon willow-herb G2 S2 Presumed Stable 2013-03-25 2013-03-25
Epilobium siskiyouense Siskiyou willow-herb G3 S2 Moderate   2020-01-22
Eremothera pygmaea Dwarf evening-primrose G3 S1 High   2020-01-22
Ericameria arborescens Golden fleece G4 S1 Less Vulnerable   2020-05-06
Erigeron cevinus Siskiyou daisy G3 S2 Less Vulnerable   2020-01-21
Erigeron davisii Englemann's daisy G3 S1 Less Vulnerable   2017-06-01
Erigeron howellii Howell's daisy G2 S2 Less vulnerable   2016-08-01
Erigeron latus Broad fleabane G3 S1? Moderate   2017-06-01
Erigeron oreganus Oregon daisy G3 S3 High 2010-07-02 2016-08-01
Erigeron stansellii Stansell's daisy G1 S1 High 2012-10-04 2020-05-06
Eriogonum calcareum   G5 S2S3   2012-10-04  
Eriogonum chrysops Golden buckwheat G2 S2 Less vulnerable 2012-11-19 2015-05-27
Eriogonum crosbyae var. crosbyae Crosby's buckwheat G3T3 S2 High   2020-01-09
Eriogonum crosbyae var. mystrium Pueblo Mountains buckwheat G2 S2   2012-10-10  
Eriogonum cusickii Cusick's eriogonum G2 S2 Moderate   2016-08-09
Eriogonum prociduum Prostrate buckwheat G2? S1? Moderate   2016-08-01
Eriogonum villosissimum Acker Rock wild buckwheat G1 S1 Moderate 2012-01-16 2016-08-01
Eriophorum chamissonis Russet cotton-grass G5 S1 High   2020-05-06
Erysimum concinnum Pacific wallflower G3 S1 Extreme   2016-08-01
Erythranthe hymenophylla Membrane-leaved monkeyflower G2 S1S2 Extreme   2016-08-09
Erythranthe inflatula Disappearing monkeyflower G3 S2 Less Vulnerable   2020-01-14
Erythronium elegans Coast Range fawn-lily G2 S2 Less vulnerable   2016-08-01
Erythronium howellii Howell's adder's-tongue G3 S3 Moderate 2010-07-07 2020-01-14
Eucephalus gormanii Gorman's aster G3 S3 Moderate 2010-07-09 2020-01-07
Eucephalus vialis Wayside aster G3 S3 Less Vulnerable 2010-07-09 2020-01-13
Filipendula occidentalis Queen-of-the-forest G2 S2 Less vulnerable   2016-08-01
Frasera umpquaensis Umpqua swertia G3 S3 Moderate 2009-10-12 2016-08-19
Fritillaria gentneri Gentner's fritillaria G1 S1 Less Vulnerable 2012-11-08 2015-05-27
Gentiana plurisetosa Bristly gentian G2G3 S1 High   2020-01-13
Gentiana setigera Waldo gentian G2 S2 High   2016-08-01
Gilia millefoliata Seaside gilia G2 S1 High 2013-03-06 2013-03-11
Gratiola heterosepala Boggs Lake hedge-hyssop G2 S1 Extreme   2016-08-01
Hackelia bella Beautiful stickseed G3? S1 Less Vulnerable   2017-06-01
Hackelia cronquistii Cronquist's stickseed G3 S3 High 2010-07-12 2016-08-19
Hackelia ophiobia Three forks stickseed G3 S1 Moderate   2017-06-01
Hastingsia bracteosa ssp. atropurpurea Purple flowered rush lily G2T2 S2 Moderate   2016-08-01
Hastingsia bracteosa ssp. bracteosa Large-flowered rush lily G2T2 S2 Moderate   2016-08-01
Helianthus bolanderi Bolander's sunflower G4 S2 Moderate 2016-05-13 2016-05-13
Hesperocyparis bakeri Baker's cypress G3 S1 Less Vulnerable   2017-06-01
Horkelia hendersonii Henderson's horkelia G1G2 S1S2 Extreme   2016-08-01
Huperzia miyoshiana Pacific fir-moss G4 S1 Moderate 2016-05-12 2016-05-12
Iliamna latibracteata California globe-mallow G3 S2 Moderate   2017-06-02
Ivesia rhypara var. rhypara Grimy ivesia G2T2 S1 High 2013-04-09 2015-05-27
Ivesia rhypara var. shellyi Shelly's ivesia G1G2T1T2 S1S2 High 2013-04-11 2013-04-11
Juncus kelloggii Kellogg's dwarf rush G3? S2? Less Vulnerable 2016-05-13 2016-05-13
Kalmiopsis fragrans North Umpqua kalmiopsis G2 S2 Moderate 2012-11-01 2012-11-01
Lasthenia ornduffii Large-flowered goldfields G2 S2 High   2016-08-01
Lathyrus holochlorus Thin-leaved peavine G2 S2 Less Vulnerable   2016-08-01
Lepidium davisii Davis' peppergrass G3 S1 High   2017-06-01
Lilium occidentale Western lily G1 S1 High 2012-10-16 2012-10-26
Limnanthes pumila ssp. pumila Dwarf wooly meadow-foam G1 S1 Extreme   2016-08-01
Limonium californicum Western marsh-rosemary G4 S1 Extreme   2019-08-14
Lomatium bentonitum Bentonite biscuitroot G1 S1   2012-10-04  
Lomatium cookii Cook's desert-parsley G1 S1 High 2012-10-22 2015-05-27
Lomatium englemannii Englemann's desert-parsley G3 S1 Less Vulnerable   2017-06-02
Lomatium erythrocarpum Red-fruited lomatium G1G2 S1S2 Extreme 2012-09-20 2012-09-20
Lomatium greenmanii Greenman's lomatium G1 S1 Extreme   2016-08-01
Lomatium ochocense Ochoco desert-parsley G2 S2 Presumed Stable 2012-09-12 2012-09-12
Lomatium pastorale Meadow lomatium G1G2 S1 Extreme   2016-08-01
Lomatium roseanum Rose's lomatium G2G3 S1 Moderate   2017-06-01
Lomatium suksdorfii Suksdorf's desert parsley G3 S2 Less Vulnerable   2017-06-01
Luina serpentina Colonial luina G3 S3 Extreme 2010-07-31 2016-08-19
Lupinus lepidus var. ashlanensis Mt. Ashland Lupine G1T1 S1 Extreme   2016-08-01
Lupinus lepidus var. cusickii Cusick's lupine G1T1 S1 High 2012-10-15 2012-10-15
Lupinus sabinianus Sabin's lupine G4 S4   2016-04-19  
Meconella oregana White fairypoppy G2G3 S1 Less Vulnerable   2017-06-01
Mentzelia mollis Smooth mentzelia G2 S2 Extreme   2016-08-01
Mentzelia packardiae Packard's mentzelia G2Q S2 High   2016-08-01
Micranthes hitchcockiana Saddle Mt. saxifrage G1 S1 High   2016-08-01
Mimulus hymenophyllus Membrane-leaf monkeyflower G2 S1S2 Extreme 2012-08-24 2012-09-28
Mimulus patulus Stem-leaved monkeyflower G3Q S2S4 High 2013-04-08 2013-04-08
Mirabilis macfarlanei Macfarlane's four-o'clock G2 S1 Moderate 2013-01-29 2013-01-29
Monardella purpurea Siskiyou monardella G3Q S3 Less Vulnerable   2017-06-01
Myosurus sessilis Sessile mousetail G2 S1 Moderate   2016-08-10
Navarretia willamettensis Willamette navarretia G1 S1 High   2016-08-01
Oenothera wolfii Wolf's evening-primrose G1 S1 High 2012-08-21 2012-09-10
Penstemon barrettiae Barrett's penstemon G2 S2 Moderate   2016-08-11
Penstemon deustus var. variabilis Hot-rock penstemon G5T1T2 S1S2 Less Vulnerable   2020-05-12
Penstemon glaucinus Blue-leaved penstemon G3 S3 Less Vulnerable 2010-07-14 2017-06-01
Penstemon peckii Peck's penstemon G3 S3 Less Vulnerable 2010-07-14 2016-08-19
Penstemon perpulcher Beautiful penstemon G3? S1 Less Vulnerable 2010-07-16 2017-06-01
Perideridia erythrorhiza Red-root yapah G2 S2 Presumed Stable 2012-09-06 2012-09-06
Phacelia argentea Silvery phacelia G2 S2 Extreme   2016-08-01
Phacelia inundata Playa phacelia G2 S2 High 2013-02-28 2015-05-27
Phacelia leonis Siskiyou phacelia G2 S1 Moderate 2013-02-28 2013-02-25
Phacelia minutissima Dwaft phacelia G3 S1 High   2017-06-01
Phemeranthus spinescens Spiny flame-flower G4 S2 Moderate   2020-05-12
Pilularia americana American pillwort G5 S2 Moderate   2020-05-12
Plagiobothrys hirtus Rough popcorn flower G1 S1 Extreme 2012-09-04 2012-09-04
Plagiobothrys salsus Desert allocarya G2G3 S1 High   2016-08-19
Pleuropogon oregonus Oregon semaphore grass G1 S1 Extreme 2012-08-22 2012-08-22
Pogogyne floribunda Profuse-flowered mesa mint G4 S1 High   2020-05-12
Prosartes parvifolia Siskiyou fairy bells G2? S1 Less Vulnerable   2016-08-01
Pyrrocoma radiata Snake River goldenweed G3 S3 Moderate 2010-07-26 2017-06-01
Pyrrocoma scaberula Rough pyrrocoma G3 S3 High 2010-07-20 2016-08-11
Ranunculus austrooreganus Southern Oregon buttercup G3 S3 Moderate   2016-08-01
Ranunculus triternatus Obscure Buttercup G2 S1 Presumed Stable 2012-12-07 2012-12-07
Romanzoffia thompsonii Thompson mistmaiden G3 S3 Moderate 2010-07-29 2020-01-09
Rorippa columbiae Columbia Cress G3 S3 Moderate 2010-08-08 2017-06-01
Rubus bartonianus Bartonberry G2 S2 High 2012-12-05 2012-12-05
Saxifragopsis fragarioides Strawberry saxifrage G3? S1 Moderate   2020-01-09
Schoenoplectus subterminalis Water clubrush G5 S2 Moderate   2020-05-12
Scirpus pendulus Drooping bulrush G5 S1 Less Vulnerable   2020-05-12
Sedum moranii Rogue River Stonecrop G2 S2 Presumed Stable 2012-11-20 2012-08-21
Senecio ertterae Ertter's senecio G2 S2 Extreme   2020-01-30
Sericocarpus rigidus White-topped aster G3 S2 Moderate   2017-06-01
Sidalcea hendersonii Henderson's sidalcea G3 S1 Extreme   2017-06-01
Sidalcea hickmanii ssp. petraea Neil Rock sidalcea G3 S1 Less Vulnerable   2017-06-01
Sidalcea hirtipes Bristly-stemmed Sidalcea G2 S2 High   2016-08-08
Silene spaldingii Spalding's catchfly G2 S2 High 2013-02-20 2013-02-21
Sisyrinchium hitchcockii Hitchcock's blue-eyed grass G2 S1 Moderate 2013-02-19 2013-02-19
Sisyrinchium sarmentosum Pale blue-eyed grass G1 S1 Moderate 2012-08-23 2015-05-27
Sophora leachiana Western Necklace G2 S2 Moderate   2016-08-02
Stanleya confertiflora Biennial stanleya G2 S2 Presumed Stable 2012-10-03 2012-08-24
Stephanomeria malheurensis Malheur wire-lettuce G1 S1 High 2012-08-27 2012-08-27
Streptanthus howellii Howell's streptanthus G2 S2 Less Vulnerable   2016-08-01
Sullivantia oregana Oregon sullivantia G2 S2 High   2016-08-01
Synthyris schizantha Fringed kittentail G4 SU Moderate   2020-05-12
Tauschia howellii Howell's tauschia G2 S1 Moderate 2014-07-23 2014-07-23
Thelypodium brachycarpum Short-podded thelypody G3 S2 Less Vulnerable   2017-06-02
Thelypodium eucosmum Arrow-leaf thelypody G2 S2 Moderate   2015-05-27
Thelypodium howellii ssp. howellii Howell's thelypody G2T2 S1 Extreme   2016-08-02
Thelypodium howellii ssp. spectabilis Howell's spectacular thelypody G2 T1S1 High 2013-02-14 2013-02-19
Trifolium douglasii Douglas's clover G2 S2 Moderate 2013-02-11 2013-02-11
Trifolium leibergii Leiberg's clover G2 S2 Presumed Stable 2013-01-30 2013-01-30
Trifolium owyheense Owyhee clover G2 S2S3 High 2022-04-08 2015-05-27
Utricularia gibba Humped bladderwort G5 S1 Less Vulnerable   2019-08-14
Utricularia minor Lesser bladderwort G5 S4   2013-09-16  

Fungi Ranks

Documentation forms for state and global ranks for fungi are provided in the table below. Where taxa have recently changed scientific names, the previously used name is noted in the Previous Name column. For detailed information on the ranking process, see Ranking Documentation. For a brief description of the meaning of the rank codes, see Rare Species Ranking Definitions. Fields with an en dash ( – ) denotes that the species has not been documented in that state, at least at the time of the assessment. Results from the 2016-2018 fungi ranking effort can be downloaded in an Excel spreadsheet.

Tables of Results: Vascular Plants  |  Fungi  |  Vertebrates   |  Invertebrates

Fungi

Scientific Name Previous Name Global Rank Oregon
State Rank
Washington
State Rank
California
State Rank
Rank
Date
Albatrellopsis flettii   G4 S4 S3 S2 2017-03-09
Albatrellus avellaneus   G3 S1S2 S2 S1 2018-05-07
Albatrellus ellisii   G3Q S3 S2 S2S3 2018-12-12
Albatrellus skamanius   GU S1     2009-09-21
Aleurodiscus farlowii   G3? S1? S1?   2017-03-09
Alpova olivaceotinctus   G2 S1 S2 2017-03-09
Amanita armillariiformis   G3 S2     2010-06-01
Amogaster viridigleba   G1 S1     2010-06-01
Arcangeliella crassa   G3 S2     2010-06-01
Arcangeliella lactarioides   G3 S1     2010-06-01
Arrhenia lobata   G5 S1     2010-06-03
Asterophora lycoperdoides   G4 S2S3 S2S3 S2 2017-03-09
Asterophora parasitica   G3G4 S2 S2 2017-03-09
Baeospora myriadophylla   G3 S1 S3 S1S2 2017-03-09
Balsamia alba   G3 S2     2010-06-03
Balsamia nigrans Balsamia nigrens G2G3 S2 S2 2017-03-09
Balsamia platyspora   G3 S1     2010-06-04
Boletus subalpinus Gastroboletus subalpinus G4 S3S4 S1 S3? 2018-02-28
Bondarzewia mesenterica   G4Q S4 S3S4 S3 2018-12-17
Bridgeoporus nobilissimus   G2G3 S2 S2 S1 2018-12-05
Cantharellus subalbidus   G4 S3 S3 S3 2018-12-06
Catathelasma ventricosum   G4 S2 S3 S2 2017-03-09
Cazia flexiascus   G2 S1     2010-06-04
Chalciporus piperatus Boletus piperatus G4 S3S4 S4 S3S4 2017-03-09
Chamonixia caespitosa   G3? S2 S2 S1 2017-03-09
Chloroscypha flavida Gelatinodiscus flavidus G3 S3 S3 S1 2018-12-06
Choiromyces alveolatus   G2G3 S2 S1 S2 2018-12-10
Choiromyces venosus   G4? S1 S1 2017-08-08
Chroogomphus loculatus   G2Q S2 2017-08-08
Chrysomphalina grossula   G3 S2 S2 S1 2017-08-08
Clavariadelphus ligula   G4 S3 S3 S2 2018-12-11
Clavariadelphus occidentalis   G4 S3 S4 S3 2017-04-22
Clavariadelphus sachalinensis   G4 S3 S2 S2 2014-04-22
Clavariadelphus subfastigiatus   G3 S2 S1 S1 2017-04-22
Clavariadelphus truncatus   G5 S3 S3 S3 2018-12-12
Clavulina castaneipes var. lignicola   G3 S2 S2 2017-04-22
Clitocybe senilis   G4Q S1 S2 S1 2018-12-10
Clitocybe subditopoda   G3 S1 S3 S1 2017-03-09
Collybia bakerensis   G4 S3 S3 S3 2017-03-09
Conocybe subnuda   G4? S1     2010-06-04
Cortinarius barlowensis   G3 S2 S3 2017-03-09
Cortinarius boulderensis   G3 S2 S3 S1 2017-03-09
Cortinarius cyanites   G3Q S1S2 S3 S2 2017-08-18
Cortinarius depauperatus   G3? S1 S1 S1 2017-08-25
Cortinarius magnivelatus   G3 S3 S2 2017-01-11
Cortinarius olympianus   G3 S3 S3 S2 2017-01-12
Cortinarius pavelekii Thaxterogaster pavelekii G2 S2 S1 S1 2017-01-16
Cortinarius rainierensis Cortinarius speciosissimus G3G4 S1 S1? 2017-03-09
Cortinarius tabdularis   G2G3 S1 S1 2017-03-09
Cortinarius umidicola   G2?   S1   2017-03-09
Cortinarius valgus   G3 S1 S2 2017-03-09
Cortinarius variipes   G3 S1 S3   2017-03-09
Cortinarius verrucisporus   G3 S2 S2 2017-03-09
Cortinarius wiebeae   G1 S1 2017-03-09
Craterellus tubaeformis   G4G5 S3S4 S3S4 S3 2016-12-10
Cystangium lymanense Macowanites lymanensis G1 S1 2016-11-30
Dendrocollybia racemosa Collybia racemosa G3G4 S2 S3 S2 2017-03-09
Dermocybe humboldtensis   G1G2 SX S1 2018-08-27
Destuntzia fusca   G2G3 S1   S2 2017-03-09
Destuntzia rubra   G2 SH   S2 2017-03-09
Dichostereum boreale   G1 S1 2017-01-30
Elaphomyces anthracinus   G3 S1 2017-01-30
Elaphomyces decipiens   G3 S3     2010-06-04
Elaphomyces subviscidus   G2 S1 2017-01-19
Endogone acrogena   G2 S2 2017-03-09
Endogone oregonensis   G2 S2 2017-03-09
Entocybe nitida   G3G4 S1 S2 S2 2017-03-09
Entocybe speciosa Rhodocybe speciosa G3 S1 S2 2017-01-11
Fayodia bisphaerigera   G3Q S1 S3 S2 2018-12-10
Fevansia aurantiaca   G2 S2 2017-03-09
Galerina atkinsoniana   G4G5 S4 S4 S1 2017-03-09
Galerina cerina   G4 S3 S3 S2 2017-03-09
Galerina fuscobrunnea   G1 S1     2010-06-09
Galerina heterocystis   G4Q S2 S3 S2S3 2017-03-09
Galerina sphagnicola   G3G4 SU SU 2019-05-22
Gastroboletus imbellus   G1 S1 2017-03-09
Gastroboletus ruber   G3G4 S3 S3 S2 2018-02-28
Gastroboletus turbinatus   G4 S4 S3S4 S4 2018-02-28
Gastroboletus vividus   G3 S3 S3 2017-01-09
Gastrosuillus amaranthi   GH SH 2018-02-28
Gautieria magnicellaris   G3G4 S1 S1 2018-12-10
Gautieria otthii   G3Q S1 S1 2018-02-28
Genea compacta   G2 S1     2010-10-04
Glomus pubescens   G3 S1     2010-10-06
Glomus radiatum   G2G4 S1? S1? S1? 2018-03-01
Gomphus clavatus   G4 S3 S3 S3 2017-01-20
Guepinia helvelloides Tremiscus helvelloides G4 S3S4 S3S4 S3S4 2018-06-15
Gymnomyces fragrans Martellia fragrans G2 S1 S1 2016-11-30
Gymnomyces monosporus   G1 S1     2010-10-06
Gymnomyces nondistincta   G1 S1 S1 2017-03-09
Gymnopilus punctifolius   G4 S3 S3 S3 2016-11-21
Gyromitra californica Pseudorhizina californica G4 S3 S3 S3 2017-03-09
Hebeloma occidentale   G1 S1     2010-10-06
Hebeloma olympianum   G3 S3 2017-03-09
Hebeloma oregonense   G1 S1     2010-10-11
Hebeloma parcivelum   G1 S1     2010-10-10
Hebeloma pungens   G1 S1     2010-10-10
Helvella crassitunicata   G3 S3 S3 2016-11-23
Helvella elastica   G5 S2 S3 S1S2 2016-11-15
Hemimycena pseudocrispula   G3 S1     2010-10-10
Hydnotrya inordinata   G3 S3 S1 2016-11-25
Hydnotrya subnix   G1 S1 2016-11-25
Hydropus marginellus   G3G4 S2 S3 S2 2016-11-25
Hygrophorus albicarneus   G1 S1     2010-10-11
Hygrophorus albiflavus   G1 S1     2010-10-11
Hygrophorus caeruleus   G3 S2S3 S1S2 S2 2016-11-28
Hygrophorus karstenii   G3Q S3? 2016-11-28
Hygrophorus vernalis   G1G2 S1 S1 2016-11-28
Hypomyces luteovirens   G4 S2 S2 S1 2018-04-17
Lactarius crassus Arcangeliella crassa G3 S2S3 S2S3 2017-03-09
Lactarius lactarioides Arcangeliella lactarioides G2G3 S2? S2? 2017-03-09
Lactarius silviae Arcangeliella camphorata G2G3 S2S3 S1S2 2017-03-09
Leptonia violaceonigra   G2 S1     2010-08-25
Leucogaster citrinus   G4 S4 S4 S3 2017-03-09
Leucogaster microsporus   G2G3 S2 S1 S2 2018-11-29
Macowanites chlorinosmus   G3 S3 S1 S1 2016-11-29
Macowanites mollis   G3 S1 S2 2016-11-30
Martellia medlockii   G1 S1     2010-06-14
Muscinupta laevis Cyphellostereum laeve G3? S1 S2 2017-01-10
Mycena gaultheri   G1 S1     2010-06-14
Mycena hudsoniana   G2G3 S1 S2 S2 2018-11-29
Mycena overholtsii   G4 S3 S3 S2S3 2018-12-10
Mycena quiniaultensis Mycena quinaultensis G3 S1S2 S2S3 S2S3 2018-05-18
Mycena tenax   G4 S2 S2S3 S3 2016-12-05
Mycetinis applanatipes   G2 S1 S2 2016-11-30
Mythicomyces corneipes   G2G3 S1S2 S2S3 2016-12-15
Neoalbatrellus caeruleoporus Albatrellus caeruleoporus G2G3Q S2 S1 S1 2017-03-09
Neolentinus adhaerens   G3 S1 S2 2016-12-15
Neolentinus kauffmanii   G4 S3 S3 S2S3 2016-12-08
Nolanea verna var. isodiametrica   T3 S1     2010-06-15
Octaviania cyanescens   G1 S1 S1 2016-12-09
Octaviania macrospora   GH SH 2018-08-24
Otidea leporina   G5 S3S4 S3 S3 2017-03-09
Otidea smithii   G3 S2 S1 S2 2016-12-12
Omphalina isabellina   G1 S1     2010-06-15
Pachycudonia monticola Cudonia monticola G3G4 S3 S2 S1 2018-02-08
Phaeoclavulina abietina Ramaria abietina G4 S2 S2 S2S3 2017-04-22
Phaeocollybia attenuata   G3Q S3 S3 S2S3 2016-12-12
Phaeocollybia californica   G3 S2? S3 2018-12-10
Phaeocollybia dissiliens   G2 S2 S1 2018-05-21
Phaeocollybia fallax   G4Q S3S4 S2S3 S2S3 2017-03-09
Phaeocollybia gregaria   G1G2Q S1S2 2017-03-09
Phaeocollybia kauffmanii   G3G4 S3 S3 S2S3 2018-05-21
Phaeocollybia lilacifolia   G2 S1S2 S1 SH 2017-03-09
Phaeocollybia olivacea   G3Q S2S3 S1 S3 2017-03-09
Phaeocollybia oregonensis   G2 S2 S1 2017-03-09
Phaeocollybia piceae   G3 S3? S2 S2 2018-12-10
Phaeocollybia pseudofestiva   G2G3Q S2S3 S2 S2S3 2018-05-22
Phaeocollybia scatesiae   G3 S3 S2? S2 2019-12-10
Phaeocollybia sipei   G3 S3 S1 S1? 2017-03-09
Phaeocollybia spadicea   G3G4 S3S4 S2 S2 2017-03-09
Phellodon atratus   G4 S3? S3 S3 2018-05-23
Pholiota nubigena Nivatogastrium nubigenum G4 S3 SH S3 2018-05-18
Polyozellus multiplex   G4 S3 S3 S1 2016-12-31
Pseudaleuria quinaultiana   G2 S2 S2 2017-04-22
Radiigera bushnellii   G1 S1     2010-06-16
Ramaria amyloidea   G3 S3 S2 S1 2018-12-10
Ramaria araiospora   G4 S4 S3 S2 2017-04-22
Ramaria aurantiisiccescens   G3 S2S3 S2 S1 2018-12-10
Ramaria botrytis var. aurantiiramosa   GUT2 S1 S1 S1 2017-04-22
Ramaria celerivirescens   G4 S3 S3 S2 2017-04-22
Ramaria conjunctipes var. sparsiramosa   GUT3 S3 S2 S2 2017-04-22
Ramaria coulterae   G3 S2S3 S2 2018-12-10
Ramaria cyaneigranosa   G4 S3 S3 S1S2 2018-12-10
Ramaria gelatiniaurantia   G3 S2 S2S3 S2 2017-04-22
Ramaria gracilis   G3 S1 S1? S1? 2018-12-11
Ramaria hilaris var. olympiana   GUT1 S1 S1 2017-04-22
Ramaria largentii   G3 S3 S3 S3 2018-12-11
Ramaria lorithamnus   G3Q S1 S1 2018-06-04
Ramaria maculatipes   G3 S3 S2 S2 2018-12-11
Ramaria rainierensis   G2 S1 S1 S1 2017-04-22
Ramaria rubella f. blanda Ramaria rubella var. blanda GUT3? S2? S2? 2018-06-05
Ramaria rubribrunnescens   G3 S2 S2S3 S1 2017-04-22
Ramaria rubrievanescens   G4 S3 S3 S3 2018-12-11
Ramaria rubripermanens   G4 S4 S3 S2 2018-12-11
Ramaria spinulosa var. diminutiva   GUT2 SNA S1 S1 2018-08-03
Ramaria stricta var. concolor Ramaria concolor f. marrii GUT1 S1 S1 S1 2018-07-17
Ramaria stuntzii   G4 S3 S3 S2S3 2018-12-11
Ramaria suecica   G4 S2 S1S2 S1 2018-06-07
Ramaria thiersii   G3 S2   2018-06-07
Ramaria tsugina Ramaria concolor f. tsugina G3 S2 S1 S1 2018-07-17
Ramaria verlotensis   G1G2 S1 S1 2017-04-22
Rhizopogon abietis   G3 S3 S1 2018-12-11
Rhizopogon alexsmithii Alpova alexsmithii G2 S2 S1 S1 2017-03-09
Rhizopogon atroviolaceus   G3 S3 S1 2017-01-10
Rhizopogon bacillisporus   G4 S3     2010-08-06
Rhizopogon brunneiniger   G3 S2 S2 2010-08-06
Rhizopogon chamaleontinus   G1 S1 2017-01-10
Rhizopogon clavitisporus   G3 S3     2010-08-09
Rhizopogon ellipsosporus   G2 S2 S1 2018-12-11
Rhizopogon evadens var. subalpinus   GUT3 S3 S3 S2 2018-12-17
Rhizopogon exiguus   G3 S2 S1 2017-03-09
Rhizopogon flavofibrillosus   G3 S3 S2 2017-03-09
Rhizopogon inquinatus   G2 S1 2017-01-10
Rhizopogon rogersii   G3 S3     2010-08-10
Rhizopogon semireticulatus   G3 S3     2010-08-11
Rhizopogon semitectus   G2 S1     2010-08-11
Rhizopogon subcinnamomeus   G2 S1     2010-08-11
Rhizopogon subclavitisporus   G2 S2     2010-08-12
Rhizopogon subpurpurascens   G3 S2S3     2010-08-16
Rhizopogon truncatus   G4 S4 S1 S2 2018-12-17
Rhizopogon variabilisporus   G2 S1     2010-08-16
Rickenella swartzii   G4 S2 S2 S1S2 2017-01-11
Rubroboletus haematinus Boletus haematinus G3 S2 S1 S2 2017-03-09
Rubroboletus pulcherrimus   G3 S3 S2 S2 2017-03-09
Russula idahoensis Cystangium idahoensis G2 S1 2017-03-09
Russula mustelina   G3 S1S2 S1 S2 2018-12-17
Russula subabietis Gymnomyces abietis G3G4 S3S4 S1S3 S3S4 2018-03-01
Sarcodon fuscoindicus   G3 S2S3 S3 S2 2018-12-17
Sclerotinia veratri   G3G4 S1     2010-08-17
Sedecula pulvinata   G3 S2 S2 S2 2018-06-12
Sowerbyella rhenana   G3 S2S3 S1S2 S2S3 2017-03-09
Sparassis radicata Sparassis crispa G4 S4 S3S4 S3 2018-06-15
Spathularia flavida   G4 S3 S3 S3 2018-12-17
Squamanita paradoxa   G3 SH     2010-08-17
Stagnicola perplexa   G3 S1 S1 2017-01-16
Stephensia bynumii   G1 S1     2010-08-17
Stropharia albivelata Pholiota albivelata G3 S2 S3 S2 2017-03-09
Suillus umbrinus Gastrosuillus umbrinus GH SH 2018-02-28
Tolypocladium ophioglossoides Cordyceps ophioglossoides G4 S2 S3 S1 2017-03-09
Trichoderma alutaceum Podostroma alutaceum G3 S1 S2 S1 2017-04-22
Tricholoma venenatum   G3? S2 S1? S1 2018-06-18
Tricholomopsis fulvescens   G2G3 SX S2 S2 2018-12-13
Tuber asa   G2 S2 S1 2018-12-12
Tuber pacificum   G1 S1 2017-03-09
Turbinellus floccosus Gomphus bonarii G4G5 S4S5 S4S5 S4S5 2018-12-17
Turbinellus kauffmanii Gomphus kauffmanii G4 S3 S3 S2 2017-03-09
Tylopilus porphyrosporus   G4 S3 S3 S3 2017-01-18
Zelleromyces papyraceus Octavianina papyracea G1 S1 2016-12-09

Vertebrate Animal Ranks

Documentation forms for Oregon state and global ranks for vertebrate animals are provided in the table below. For detailed information on the ranking process, see Ranking Documentation. For a brief description of the meaning of the rank codes, see Rare Species Ranking Definitions. Many of these assessments are archived at PDXScholar.

Tables of Results: Vascular Plants  |  Fungi  |  Vertebrates   |  Invertebrates

Vertebrate Animals
Fish

Scientific Name Common Name Global Rank State Rank Rank Date
Entosphenus lethophagus Pit-Klamath brook lamprey G3G4 S3 2016-07-11
Entosphenus minimus Miller Lake lamprey G3 S2 2013-01-03
Entosphenus tridentatus Pacific lamprey G4 S1S2 2016-07-11
Lampetra pacifica Pacific brook lamprey GNR S2? 2023-01-17
Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi Westslope cutthroat trout G4T4 S2 2014-10-15
Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri Inland Columbia Basin redband trout G5T4 S2S3 2014-08-26
Oncorhychus mykiss pop. 42 Fort Rock redband trout G5T3Q S2 2015-04-02
Oncorhychus mykiss pop. 44 Chewaucan redband trout G5T3Q S3 2015-02-16
Oregonichthys crameri Oregon chub G3 S3 2013-07-01
Rhinichthys umatilla Umatilla dace   S1 2023-11-06

Amphibians

Scientific Name Common Name Global Rank State Rank Rank Date
Ambystoma mavortium melanosticum Blotched tiger salamander G5T4 S3? 2019-01-18
Anaxyrus boreas Boreal toad G4 S4S5 2023-10-18
Aneides ferreus Clouded salamander G3G4 S3S4 2019-01-18
Aneides flavipunctatus Black salamander G4 S2 2013-05-13
Batrachoseps attenuatus California slender salamander G5 S3 2023-12-01
Batrachoseps wrighti Oregon slender salamander G3 S3 2010-02-21
Dicamptodon copei Cope's giant salamander G3 S2? 2022-10-20
Lithobates pipiens Northern leopard frog G5 S1 2023-12-01
Plethodon elongatus Del Norte salamander G4 S3 2019-01-18
Plethodon larselli Larch Mountain salamander G2G3 S2? 2022-11-01
Rana cascadae Cascades frog G3 S3 2022-11-01
Rana pretiosa Oregon spotted frog G2 S1S2 2023-10-19
Rhyacotriton cascadae Cascade torrent salamander G3 S2S3 2022-11-09
Rhyacotriton kezeri Columbia torrent salamander G2G3 S2S3 2022-11-09
Rhyacotriton variegatus Southern torrent salamander G3? S3? 2022-11-09
Spea intermontana Great Basin spadefoot G5 S5 2023-10-25

Reptiles

Scientific Name Common Name Global Rank State Rank Rank Date
Crotalus oreganus Western rattlesnake G5 S5 2016-03-31
Lampropeltis getula Common kingsnake G5 S3 2010-04-21
Lampropeltis zonata California mountain kingsnake G4G5 S3S4 2010-06-17
Masticophis taeniatus Striped whipsnake G5 S3S4 2010-07-08
Phrynosoma hernandesi Short-horned lizard G5 S3 2013-07-25
Sonora semiannualata Ground snake G5 S3 2016-03-31

Birds

Scientific Name Common Name Global Rank State Rank Rank Date
Accipiter cooperi Cooper's hawk G5 S4 2012-09-27
Accipiter gentilis Northern goshawk G5 S3S4 2013-04-10
Accipeter striatus Sharp-shinned hawk G5 S4 2016-03-28
Aechmophorus occidentalis Western grebe G5 S4B 2016-03-22
Agelaius tricolor Tricolored blackbird G1G2 S2B 2019-02-12
Anthus rubescens American pipit G5 S4 2013-03-04
Aquila chrysaetos Golden eagle G5 S4 2024-01-18
Amphispiza bilineata Black-throated sparrow G5 S3 2016-07-12
Artemisiospiza nevadensis Sagebrush sparrow G5 S4B 2016-03-23
Asio flemmeus Short-eared owl G5 S3 2013-04-12
Asio otus Long-eared owl G5 S3S4 2019-03-11
Baeolophous inornatus Oak titmouse G4 S3S4 2019-03-11
Baeolophus ridgwayi Juniper titmouse G5 S3 2012-03-14
Brachyramphus marmoratus Marbled murrelet G3 S2 2016-03-24
Branta bernicla Brant G5 S2N 2016-04-06
Branta canadensis occidentalis Dusky Canada goose G5T3 S3N 2016-04-05
Branta hutchinsii leucopareia Aleutian Canada goose G5T3 S3N 2016-04-05
Butorides viriscens Green heron G5 S4 2012-03-14
Centrocercus urophasianus Greater sage-grouse G3G4 S2 2019-01-31
Cerorhinca monocerata Rhinoceros auklet G5 S2B 2016-03-24
Charadrius nivosus nivosus Western snowy plover G3T3 S2 2013-04-30
Circus cyaneus Northern harrier G5 S3 2012-10-19
Contopus cooperi Olive-sided flycatcher G4 S2S3B 2013-04-29
Coturnicops noveboracensis Yellow rail G4 S2B 2016-03-15
Cypseloides niger Black swift G4 S2?B 2016-03-16
Dendragapus obscurus Dusky grouse G4 S3 2012-10-05
Dolichonyx oryzivorus Bobolink G5 S2B 2016-03-16
Dryobates albolarvatus White-headed woodpecker G4 S3 2023-01-16
Egretta thula Snowy egret G5 S2B 2016-03-17
Empidonax traillii adastus Willow flycatcher G5T5 S3B 2013-04-19
Empidonax traillii brewsteri Little willow flycatcher G5T3T4 S3B 2013-04-19
Eremohpila alpestris strigata Streaked horned lark G5T2 S2B 2016-03-18
Falco peregrinus anatum American peregrine falcon G4T4 S3 2016-04-11
Fratercula cirrhata Tufted puffin G5 S1 2010-04-16
Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus Pinyon jay G5 S3 2016-07-12
Haemorhous cassinii Cassin's finch G5 S4 2016-07-13
Haemorhous purpureus Purple fnch G5 S4? 2016-07-12
Histrionicus histrionicus Harlequin duck G4 S2B,S3N 2016-03-22
Lanius ludovicianus Loggerhead Shrike G4 S3B,S2N 2012-10-05
Leucosticte astrata Black rosy-finch G4 S2B 2019-03-06
Melanerpes lewis Lewis' woodpecker G4 S3B,S2?N 2023-10-19
Oceanodroma leucorhoa Leach's storm-petrel G5 S4 2016-06-23
Oreortyx pictus Mountain quail G5 S3S4 2013-04-22
Oreoscoptes montanus Sage thrasher G5 S3S4 2013-06-20
Phalacrocorax pelagicus Pelagic cormorant G5 S3 2016-06-23
Picoides albolarvatus White-headed woodpecker G4 S2 2014-10-15
Picoides arcticus Black-backed woodpecker G5 S3 2016-07-12
Picoides dorsalis American Three-toed woodpecker G5 S3 2016-07-12
Pipilo chlorulus Green-tailed towhee G5 S3S4 2016-07-12
Pooecetes gramineus affinis Oregon vesper sparrow G5T3? S1B 2020-02-18
Psiloscops flammeolus Flammulated owl G4 S3B 2019-03-07
Regulus satrapa Golden-crowned kinglet G5 S3 2013-06-20
Selasphorus calliope Calliope hummingbird G5 S4 2016-07-12
Selasphorus rufus Rufous hummingbird G5 S4 2016-07-12
Selasphorus sasin Allen's hummingbird G5 S3S4 2016-07-12
Spizella breweri Brewer's sparrow G5 S3 2013-06-20
Strix occidentalis caurina Northern spotted owl G3G4T3 S2 2015-12-14
Sphyrapicus thyroideus Williamson's sapsucker G5 S3S4B, S3N 2016-07-12
Vireo olivaceus Red-eyed vireo G5 S3S4B 2013-03-14

Mammals

Scientific Name Common Name Global Rank State Rank Rank Date
Alces alces Moose G5 S3 2022-06-23
Arborimus albipes White-footed vole G3G4 S3S4 2022-10-19
Arborimus longicaudus Red tree vole G3G4 S2S3 2022-10-19
Arborimus longicaudus pop. 1 Red tree vole North Oregon Coast DPS G2G3TNR S1S2 2022-11-04
Brachylagus idahoensis Pygmy rabbit G4 S2 2016-04-01
Canis lupus Gray wolf G5 S1S2 2012-03-14
Erethizon dorsatum Common porcupine G5 S3S4 2019-05-10
Eumetopias jubatus Northern sea lion G3 S3 2019-01-25
Lasionycteris noctivigans Silver-haired bat G5 S3S4 2013-05-06
Lepus townsendii White-tailed jackrabbit G5 S2? 2021-01-06
Myotis lucifugus Little brown myotis G3 S3 2013-05-08
Ochotona princeps American pika G5 S2S3 2019-02-01
Ovis canadensis canadensis Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep G4T4 S2 2016-07-13
Pekania pennanti Fisher G5 S1S2 2016-05-02
Parastrellus hesperus Canyon bat G5 S3 2016-07-13
Sorex preblei Preble's shrew   S3 2023-10-26
Thomomys bulbivorus Camas pocket gopher G3G4 S3S4 2022-10-19
Urocitellus washingtoni Washington ground squirrel G2 S2? 2022-10-19
Vulpes vulpes necator Sierra Nevada red fox G5T1T2 S1 2013-05-08

Invertebrate Animal Ranks

Documentation forms for Oregon state and global ranks for invertebrate animals are provided in the table below. For detailed information on the ranking process, see Ranking Documentation. For a brief description of the meaning of the rank codes, see Rare Species Ranking Definitions.

Tables of Results: Vascular Plants  |  Fungi  |  Vertebrates   |  Invertebrates

Invertebrate Animals

Scientific Name Common Name Global Rank State Rank Rank Date
Acupalpus punctulatus Marsh ground beetle G2? S2 2010-07-08
Aeshna sitchensis Zigzag Darner G5 S2 2016-06-28
Aeshna subarctica Subarctic darner G5 S2? 2016-06-28
Agonum belleri Beller's ground beetle G3 S1 2016-02-16
Andrena winnemuccana A miner bee G2? S2? 2013-06-14
Atrazonotus umbrosus Umbrose seed bug G3? S3? 2013-07-10
Bombus caliginosus Obscure bumblebee G2G3 S2? 2016-06-28
Bombus fervidus Yellow bumblebee G4? S4 2023-12-11
Bombus morrisoni Morrison Bumblebee G4G5 S2 2023-12-11
Bombus occidentalis Western bumblebee GU S1S2 2010-08-09
Bombus suckleyi Suckley's cuckoo bumblebee G1G3 S1? 2016-06-28
Boreostolus americanus American unique-headed bug GNR S3S4 2016-05-18
Callophrys johnsoni Johnson's hairstreak G3G4 S2S3 2023-11-14
Capnia kersti A stonefly G1G2 S1 2016-06-30
Carinacauda stormi Cascades axetail slug G2G3 S2S3 2022-11-10
Cicindela hirticollis couleensis Hairy-necked tiger beetle G5T3 S2? 2016-05-18
Cicindela hirticollis siuslawensis Siuslaw hairy-necked tiger beetle G5T1T2 S1S2 2016-07-01
Cicindela purpurea hatchi A tiger beetle G5T3T4 S2S3? 2016-07-01
Colias christina pseudochristina Intermountain sulphur G3G4T2T4 S2 2010-07-14
Colias christina sullivanti Sullivan's sulphur G5T2T3 S2 2012-01-10
Colligyrus depressus Harney Basin duskysnail   S2 2023-11-16
Colligyrus sp. 4 Columbia duskysnail G2 S2 2011-10-07
Criocoris saliens Salien plant bug G2? S3 2016-05-18
Cryptomastix devia Puget oregonian G3 S1 2011-10-06
Cryptomastix hendersoni Columbia Gorge oregonian G1G2 S2 2019-03-22
Danaus plexippus pop. 1 Monarch - California overwintering population G4T2T3 S1S2B 2018-02-23
Dendrocoris arizonensis Arizona stinkbug G4 S3? 2016-05-18
Deroceras hesperium Evening fieldslug G2 S2 2011-10-21
Dumontia oregonensis A water flea G1G3 S1 2010-10-28
Erpetogomphus compositus White-belted ringtail G5 S4 2016-07-01
Farula constricta A Farulan caddisfly G1G2 S1S2 2016-07-01
Fluminicola fuscus Columbia pebblesnail   S2 2023-11-14
Fluminicola sp. 3 Diminutive pebblesnail G1 S1 2011-10-21
Fluminicola sp. 11 Nerite pebblesnail G1 S1 2011-10-21
Fluminicola sp. 14 Tall pebblesnail G1 S1 2011-10-10
Gomphus kurilis Pacific clubtail G4 S3S4 2010-08-09
Gomphus lynnae Columbia clubtail G2 S2 2010-07-22
Helicodiscus salmonaceus Salmon coil G2 S2? 2016-07-01
Hemphillia burringtoni Jumping-slug G1G2 S1S2? 2016-07-05
Hesperarion mariae Tillamook westernslug G3 S3 2009-05-05
Hesperia colorado oregonia Oregon branded skipper G5T3T4 S2 2013-06-18
Homoplectra schuhi Schuh's Homoplectran Caddisfly G3Q S3? 2016-06-24
Hoplistoscelis heidemanni Heidemann’s damsel bug G4 S2S3 2016-07-05
Juga sp. 1 Basalt juga G2 S2? 2019-06-05
Margaritifera falcata Western pearlshell G5 S3 2016-07-05
Megomphix lutarius Umatilla megomphix G1G2 S1S2 2022-11-11
Monadenia chaceana Chace sideband G2G3 S2S3 2011-11-08
Monadenia fidelis celeuthia Traveling sideband G4G5T2Q S2 2016-07-06
Monadenia fidelis columbiana Columbia sideband G4G5T2Q S2 2016-07-06
Monadenia fidelis minor Oregon snail (Dalles sideband) G4G5T2 S1S2 2011-10-25
Philotiella leona Leona's little blue butterfly G1G2 S1 2009-11-16
Physella cooperi Olive physa G3 SU 2010-07-20
Physella virginea Sunset physa G4 S1S2 2010-07-21
Plebejus saepiolus littoralis Coastal greenish blue G5T1T3 S1 2010-08-03
Polites mardon Mardon skipper G2 S2? 2022-11-09
Pristiloma crateris Crater Lake tightcoil G3 S3 2022-11-11
Pristiloma idahoense Thinlip tightcoil G2G3 S1? 2016-07-07
Pristiloma johnsoni Broadwhorl tightcoil G2G3 S3 2010-09-13
Pristinicola hemphilli Pristine springsnail G3 S3 2016-07-06
Prophysaon sp. 1 Klamath tail-dropper G2 S2 2016-07-07
Pterostichus johnsoni Johnson's waterfall carabid beetle GNR S3 2010-08-09
Pterostichus rothi Roth's blind carabid beetle G2? S2? 2013-06-18
Pyrgulopsis robusta Jackson Lake springsnail G5 S2S3 2016-07-07
Rhyacophila viquaea A Rhyacophilan Caddisfly G1G2 S1 2016-07-07
Scaphinotus mannii Mann's Mollusk-eating Ground Beetle G1G2 S1 2011-11-01
Speyeria coronis coronis Coronis fritillary G5T3T4 S2 2013-06-14
Speyeria cybele Great Spangled Fritillary G5 S4 2016-07-07
Vertigo andrusiana Pacific vertigo G2G3 S1 2016-07-07
Vespericola sierranus Siskiyou hesperian G2 S2? 2016-07-07

Western Snowy Plover

Western Snowy Plover

Central and Southern Oregon Coast 

The western snowy plover (Charadrius nivosus nivosus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1973. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center staff have surveyed and monitored snowy plovers along the Oregon coast since the 1990s. Working with partners in the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Oregon Department of Parks and Recreation, The Nature Conservancy, and many others, ORBIC staff have collected decades of data on plover distribution, nesting locations and success, and predator controls and exclosure methods. Through these and other conservation efforts, populations of the western snowy plover have steadily increased.

Related Information

Sponsor: Collaborative project with multiple partners

Purpose: Monitor productivity and document management success

Informs/Impacts: We inform recovery actions for this Threatened shorebird. Oregon/Washington recovery unit is only unit meeting recovery goals. Snowy plovers now nest in all Oregon coastal counties.

6 state and federal partners
35 plovers in 1990
700+ plovers in 2021